17. Scirpus Rufus (Huds.) Schrad. Red Clubrush

Fig. 817

Schoenus rufus Huds. Fl. Angl. Ed. 2, 15. 1778. Scirpus rufus Schrad. Fl. Germ. 1: 133. 1806. Blysmus rufus Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 278. 1827.

Perennial by slender rootstocks, culms tufted, smooth, slender, erect, somewhat compressed, 3'-15' tall. Leaves half-terete, smooth, shorter than the culm, channeled, -3' long, less than 1' wide, the lowest reduced to bladeless sheaths; spikelets red-brown, few-flowered, narrowly ovoid-oblong, subacute, about 3" long, erect in a terminal 2-ranked spike 1/2'-l' long; involucral leaf solitary, erect, narrowly linear, equalling or longer than the spike; scales lanceolate, acute, 1-nerved; bristles 3-6, upwardly barbed, shorter than the achene, deciduous; stamens 3; style 2-cleft; achene oblong, pointed at both ends, light brown, plano-convex or slightly angled in front, I 1/2"-2" long.

In marshes, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Quebec to James' Bay; Northwest Territory. Also in northern Europe. Summer.

17 Scirpus Rufus Huds Schrad Red Clubrush 817

18. Scirpus Paludosus A. Nelson. Prairie Bulrush

Fig. 818

Scirpus campestris Britton, in Britton and Brown, 111. Fl.

Ed. 1. 1: 267. 1896. Not Roth, 1795. S. paludosus A. Nelson, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 5. 1899. Scirpus interior Britton, Man. Ed. 2, 178. 1905.

Perennial by slender rootstocks, culm slender, smooth, sharply triangular, 1°-2° tall. Leaves usually pale green, smooth, shorter than or overtopping the culm, 1 "-2" wide, those of the involucre 2 or 3, the longer much exceeding the inflorescence; spikelets" 3-10 in a dense terminal simple head, oblong-cylindric, mostly acute, 8"-12" long, 2 1/2"-4" in diameter; scales ovate, membranous, puberulent or glabrous, pale to brown, 2-toothed at the apex, the midvein excurrent into an ascending or spreading awn about 1" long; bristles 1-3, much shorter than the achene or none; style 2-cleft; achene lenticular, obovate or oblong-ovate, mucronulate, yellow-brown.

Salt marshes, Quebec to New Jersey, about salt springs inland and on wet prairies and plains, Manitoba and Minnesota to Oregon, Nebraska, Kansas, Nevada and Mexico. May-Aug.

18 Scirpus Paludosus A Nelson Prairie Bulrush 818

19. Scirpus Robustus Pursh. Salt Marsh Bulrush

Fig. 819

Scirpus robustus Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 56. 1814. Scirpus maritimus var. macrostacliyus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 32. 1803. Not S. macrostachyus Lam.

Perennial by large rootstocks, culm stout, stiff, sharply 3-angled with flat sides, smooth, 2°-5° tall. Leaves equalling or overtopping the culm, dark green, smooth, 2 1/2"-5" wide, the midvein prominent; involu-cral leaves 2-4, elongated, erect, similar to those of the culm, often I long; spikelets ovoid-oblong, obtuse or subacute, stout, 8"-12" long, 4"-5" in diameter, 6-20 together in a dense often compound terminal cluster; scales ovate, brown, puberulent, thin, lacerate or 2-toothed at the apex, the midvein excurrent into an, at length, reflexed awn, 1 1/2"-2 1/2" long; bristles 1-6, fragile, snorter than the achene or none; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene compressed, very flat on the face, convex or with low ridge on the back, obovate-orbic-ular, dark brown, shining, 1 1/2" long.

In salt marshes, Nova Scotia to Texas. Spurt-grass. Sea Club-rush. July-Oct.

19 Scirpus Robustus Pursh Salt Marsh Bulrush 819