20. Scirpus Fluviatilis (Torr.) A. Gray. River Bulrush

Fig. 820

Scirpus maritimus var. fluviatilis Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3:

324. 1836. Scirpus fluviatilis A. Gray. Man. 527. 1848.

Perennial by large rootstocks, culm stout, smooth, sharply triangular with nearly flat sides, 3°-6° tall. Leaves 4"-8" wide, smooth, equalling or overtopping the culm, attenuate to a very long tip, the midvein prominent; those of the involucre 3-5, erect or spreading, some of them 5'-10' long; spikelets in a terminal umbel, solitary, or 2-3 together at the ends of its long spreading or drooping rays, or the central spikelets sessile, oblong-cylindric, acute, 8"-12" long, about 3 1/2" in diameter; scales ovate, scarious, puberulent, the midvein excurrent into a curved awn 1 1/2"-2" long; bristles 6; rigid, downwardly barbed, about as long as the achene; style 3-cleft; achene sharply 3-angled, obovoid, rather dull, short-pointed, 2" long.

In shallow water along lakes and streams, Quebec to Minnesota, New Jersey, Nebraska and Kansas. River Club-rush. June-Sept.

20 Scirpus Fluviatilis Torr A Gray River Bulrush 82020 Scirpus Fluviatilis Torr A Gray River Bulrush 821

21. Scirpus Fernaldi Bickwell. Fernald's Bulrush

Fig. 821

S". Fernaldi Bicknell, Torreya 1: 96. 1901.

Perennial; culms rather pale green, slender, sharply 3-angled, 2 1/20 tall or less. Leaves 1" - 3" wide, the upper equalling or surpassing the inflorescence, those of the involucre 3 or 4, the longest one 5' long or less; spikelets ovoid, 5"-8" long, sessile in a terminal cluster and solitary at the ends of the slender umbel-rays; scales finely puberulent, acuminate, entire or lacerate, the recurved awn 1 1/2"-6" long; bristles as long as the achene or shorter; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid-cuneate, about 1 1/2" long and thick, trigonous, with rounded angles, yellow-brown and shining.

Shore of Somes Sound, Mt. Desert, Maine. July-Aug.

22. Scirpus Novae-Angliae Britton. New England Bulrush

Fig. 822

S". novae-angliae Britton, in Britton and Brown, 111. Fl. Ed. 1, 3: 509. 1898.

Perennial by rootstocks; culm stout, erect, 4°-7° tall, sharply 3-angled, the sides flat or nearly so. Leaves long, 4"-6" wide, somewhat roughish on the margins when dry, the lowest reduced to pointed sheaths, those of the involucre 2-5, the longer of them much exceeding the inflorescence; spikelets narrowly cylindric, acute, 3/4-2' long, less than i' thick, solitary or 2-5 together at the ends of the rays of the umbel, the rays 1-4' long; scales awned; bristles 2-4, shorter than the grayish-white dull obovate achene, which is distinctly 3-angled; stamens 3; style 3-cleft.

In fresh water and brackish marshes, Massachusetts to New York.

22 Scirpus Novae Angliae Britton New England Bulru 822

23. Scirpus Sylvaticus L. Wood Bulrush Or Clubrush

Fig. 823

Scirpus sylvaticus L. Sp. PI. 51. 1753.

Perennial by long rootstocks; culm triangular, stout, smooth, 4°-6° tall, often overtopped by the upper leaves. Leaves flat, 5"-8" wide, rough on the margins, more or less rugulose, the midvein prominent, those of the involucre 5-8, the larger similar to those of the culm, often 1° long or more; umbel terminal, very large, sometimes 8' broad, about 3 times compound, the spikelets ovoid or ovoid-oblong, mostly acute, 1 1/2-2 1/2 long, borne in capitate clusters of 2-8 at the ends of the raylets; bractlets of the involucels small, scarious, linear or lanceolate; scales ovate-oblong, obtuse, brown with a green centre; bristles 6, downwardly barbed, slightly exceeding the achene; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene oblong, 3-angled., obtuse, nearly white, mucronulate, not shining.

In swamps, Maine to Georgia and Michigan. Also in Europe and Asia. June-Aug.

23 Scirpus Sylvaticus L Wood Bulrush Or Clubrush 823