Evergreen trees or shrubs with frond-like foliage, the leaves small or minute, scale-like, appressed, imbricated, opposite, 4-ranked, those of the ultimate branchlets mostly obtuse, those of some of the larger twigs acute or subulate. Aments monoecious, both kinds terminal, the staminate globose; anthers opposite, 2-4-celled, the sacs globose, 2-valved. Ovule-bearing aments ovoid or oblong, small, their scales opposite, each bearing 2 (rarely 2-5) erect ovules. Cones ovoid or oblong, mostly spreading or recurved, their scales 6-10, coriaceous, opposite, not peltate, dry, spreading when mature. Seeds oblong, broadly or narrowly winged or wingless. [Name ancient.]

About 4 species, natives of North America and eastern Asia. Besides the following, another occurs from Montana, Idaho and Oregon to Alaska. Type species: Thuja occidentalis L.

1. Thuja Occidentalis L. White Cedar. Arbor Vitae

Fig. 152

Thuja occidentalis L. Sp. PI. 1002. 1753.

A conical tree, reaching a height of about 70° and a trunk diameter of 5°, the old bark deciduous in ragged strips. Scale-like leaves of the ultimate branchlets nearly orbicular, obtuse, 1"-1 1/2" broad, the two lateral rows keeled, the two other rows flat, causing the twigs to appear much flattened; leaves of the older twigs narrower and longer, acute or acuminate; cones 4"-6" long, their scales obtuse; seeds broadly winged.

In wet soil and along the banks of streams, forming almost impenetrable forests northward, New Brunswick to James' Bay and Manitoba, south to New Jersey, along the Alleghanies to North Carolina. Tennessee and to Illinois and Minnesota. Ascends to 3500 ft. in the Adirondacks. Wood soft, brittle, weak, coarse-grained, light brown; weight per cubic foot 20 lbs. Called also False White and Feather-leaf Cedar. May-June.

1 Thuja Occidentalis L White Cedar Arbor Vitae 152