This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Culms 1 1/2°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth or rough. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule about 1" long; blades 2" wide or less, rough, flat, or involute at the apex, the basal often one-half to two-thirds as long as the culm, the stem leaves 2'-10' long; panicle contracted, 2 1/2'-9' in length, the branches 1'-2' long, erect; spikelets about 2" long, the scales somewhat scabrous, the outer acute; third scale obtuse, the basal hairs equalling it or three-fourths as long; awn more or less bent, from a little shorter to slightly longer than the scale.
In bogs, New York and New Jersey to South Dakota and Colorado. Aug.-Sept.
Culms 1°-2° tall, rather stout; leaf-sheaths glabrous; ligule 3/4"-1 1/2" long; blades up to 8' long, 1 1/2" wide or less, very involute, filiform toward the apex, erect, glabrous on the lower surface; panicle 2-4' long, less than 1/2' wide, linear to oblong-lanceolate, much interrupted below, strict, its stout branches short and appressed; spikelets about 2" long, the empty scales ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, firm, purple or purplish, the flowering scale broad, rough on the back, the awn attached at or below the middle, slender, erect, straight.
Rocks on the seashore, Labrador. July.
C. hyperborea Lang, Fl. Dan. 50: pl. 3. 1880.
C. hyperborea elongata Kearney, Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr.
Agrost. 11: 40. 1898. C. hyperborea americana Kearney, Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr.
Agrost. 11: 41. 1898.
Culms 1 1/4°-3° tall, rigid, densely tufted; leaf-sheaths smooth and glabrous; blades rough on both surfaces, flat, or often involute toward the apex, stiff, 4'-12' long, 2 1/2" or less wide; panicle contracted, 3'-6' long, its short branches erect or ascending; spikelets 1 1/2"-2" long, the empty scales scabrous, acute, the flowering scale with the callus-hairs from a little shorter than to nearly equalling it, the awn about equalling the scale.
C Nuttalliana Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 190. 1855.
C. cinnoides Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 42. 1895.
Culms 3 -5 tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth or rough, the lower sometimes sparingly hirsute, and rarely with a villous ring at the summit; ligule 1"-2" long; blades 4'-1° long or more, 2"-5" wide, attenuate into a long point, scabrous, occasionally sparingly hirsute; panicle 3'-7' in length, contracted, the branches erect, the lower l'-2' long; spikelets 3"-4" long; scales strongly scabrous, the outer about equal, acuminate and awn-pointed; third scale shorter, obtuse, the basal hairs one-half to two-thirds its length; awn stout, exceeding or equalling the scale; prolongation of the rachilla bearing a terminal tuft of hairs.
In moist soil, Maine to Ohio, south to Georgia and Alabama. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Pennsylvania. Reed Bent-grass. Wild Oats. July-Aug.