This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Carya alba Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818. Not Juglans alba L.
A large tree, sometimes 120 high, with a trunk diameter of 40; bark shaggy in narrow plates; young twigs and leaves puberulent, becoming glabrous. Leaflets 5, or sometimes 7, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or the upper obovate, acuminate at the apex, narrowed to the sessile base, 4'-6' long, those of young plants much larger, bud-scales 8-10, imbricated, the inner becoming very large and tardily deciduous; staminate aments in 3's, on slender peduncles at the bases of shoots of the season; bract of the staminate calyx linear, longer than the lateral lobes; fruit subglobose, 1 1/4'-2 1/2' long; husk thick, soon splitting into 4 valves; nut white, somewhat compressed, 4-celled at the base, 2-celled (rarely 3-celled) above, pointed, angled, thin-shelled; seed sweet.
In rich soil, Quebec to southern Ontario and Minnesota, south to Florida, Kansas and Texas. Wood strong and tough, light brown; weight per cubic foot 52 lbs. Walnut. Sweet or white walnut. King-nut. Upland or white hickory. Red-heart hickory. May. Fruit ripe Sept.-Nov.
Hicoria carolinae-septentrionalis Ashe, Notes on Hickories. 1896.
A small tree attaining a maximum height of about 8o°, and diameter of 2 1/2°, with gray bark hanging in long loose strips. Bud-scales 8-10, imbricated, the inner greatly enlarging in leafing, and tardily deciduous; terminal bud ovate-lanceolate, truncate, the scales spreading, barely 1/3' long; lateral buds oblong; twigs very slender, 1/8' thick, glaucous, smooth, purplish-brown; staminate aments in threes, glabrous on short peduncles, at base of shoots of the season; stamens glabrous; ovary glabrous; young foliage blackening in drying, glabrous, ciliate, with few resinous globules; leaflets 3-5, the 2 upper 3/4 '-1 1/4' wide, 4-6' long, lanceolate; lower pair often smaller; fruit subglobose, 3/4'-ii' long; husk soon falling into 4 pieces; nut white or brownish, much compressed, angled, cordate or subcordate at top, thin-shelled; seed large and sweet.
Sandy or rocky woods, rarely entering "bottoms," Delaware to Georgia and Tennessee.
Carya sulcata Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818. Not Juglans sulcata
A large tree, reaching about the size of the preceding species, the bark separating in long narrow plates, the young foliage densely puberulent, the mature leaves somewhat so beneath. Leaflets 7-9 (rarely 5), acute or acuminate, oblong-lanceolate or the upper obovate, sometimes 8' long by 5' wide; staminate aments peduncled in 3's at the base of shoots of the season; bract of the staminate calyx linear, twice as long as the lateral lobes; fruit oblong, 2'-3' long; husk thick, soon splitting to the base; nut oblong, somewhat compressed, thick-shelled, pointed at both ends, yellowish-white; seed sweet.
In rich soil, New York and Pennsylvania to Indiana, Iowa, Tennessee, Kansas and Oklahoma. Wood strong, tough, darker than the preceding; weight 50 lbs. per cubic foot. May. Western or thick shell-bark. Fruit ripe Sept.-Oct.