This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Hicoria borealis Ashe, Notes on Hickories. 1896.
A small tree, with rough furrowed bark when young, becoming shaggy in long narrow strips with age. Bud-scales 8-10, imbricated, the inner bright-colored and sericeous, enlarging in leafing and tardily deciduous; terminal bud ovate-lanceolate, 1/3' long; twigs very slender, i' thick, glabrous, bright brownish red; staminate aments in 3's at base of shoots of season; bract of staminate calyx much prolonged; young foliage blackening in drying, pubescent when young, becoming smooth, ciliate, with few resinous globules on lower surface; leaflets 5, occasionally 3, lanceolate, the upper 3/4'-1 1/4' wide, 3i'-6' long; lower pair often smaller; fruit ovoid, much flattened, 3/4' or more long; husk very thin, rugose, coriaceous, usually not splitting; nut white, some-what angled; shell thin and elastic; seed large, sweet and edible.
A small tree of dry uplands, growing with oaks and Hicoria microcarpa of which it is, perhaps, a northern race. Southern and eastern Michigan, east to Belle Isle, Detroit river.
A tree, sometimes 1200 high and with a trunk diameter of 50, bark close, rough; foliage glabrous, or somewhat pubescent. Bud-scales 8-10, imbricated, the inner ones enlarging; leaflets 3-7, rarely 9, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or the upper obovate, sessile, acuminate at the apex, mostly narrowed at the base, 3'-6' long, in young plants much larger; staminate aments glabrous, peduncled in 3's; lobes of the staminate calyx about equal in length, the bract narrower; fruit obovoid or obovoid-oblong, 1 1/2'-2' long; husk thin, the valves very tardily dehiscent; nut brown, angled, pointed, very thick-shelled; seed astringent and bitter, not edible.
In dry or moist woods, Maine to southern Ontario and Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. Wood hard, strong, tough, rather dark brown; weight per cubic foot 51 lbs. Brown, red, white or black hickory. Broom-hickory. May-June. Fruit ripe Oct.-Nov.
H. glabra var. villosa Sarg. Sylva 7: 167. 1895. H. villosa Ashe, Bull. Torr. Club 24: 11, 530. 1807.
A small or medium sized tree reaching a maximum height of about 8o°, and a diameter of 20, with deeply furrowed dark gray bark. Buds of 6-8 imbricated scales, the outer usually thickly dotted with resinous globules, the inner somewhat enlarging in leafing; terminal bud ovate, i' long, lateral buds mostly short-stiped; stami-nate aments pubescent, and gland and scurf covered, peduncled in 3's at base of shoots of the season; twigs slender, 1/6 thick or less, usually glabrous, bright purple-brown; petiole pubescent; leaflets 5-9, at first thickly covered beneath with silvery peltate glands, mixed with resinous globules, generally pubescent; fruit about 1' long, obovoid or subglobose, the husk dotted with resinous globules, 5' thick and partly splitting; nut thick-shelled, angled; seed small, but sweet.
Sandy or rocky soils, Delaware to Georgia and Missouri. Wood hard, dark brown; weight per cubic foot 50 lbs. Perhaps a race of the preceding.