2. Tiniaria Cilinodis (Michx.) Small. Fringed Black Bindweed

Fig. 1651

P. cilinode Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 241. 1803.

P. cilinode erect urn Peck, N. Y. State Mus. Rep. 46:

129. 1893. T. cilinodis Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 382. 1903.

Perennial, sparingly pubescent, stem red or reddish, twining or prostrate, or nearly erect, i°-i0° long. Leaves broadly ovate or somewhat hastate, acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base, rather long-petioled, undulate, finely ciliate, 1'-4' long, or the upper smaller; ocreae small, armed with reflexed bristles near the base; racemes mostly panicled, axillary and terminal, interrupted; calyx whitish; style short, 3-parted to the base; achene 3-angled, oblong-pyramidal or ovoid, nearly 1 1/2" long, very smooth and shining.

In rocky places, Nova Scotia to Ontario, Minnesota and Pennsylvania, south in the Alleghanies to North Carolina. Ascends to 2000 ft. in the Catskills. June-Sept.

2 Tiniaria Cilinodis Michx Small Fringed Black Bin 16512 Tiniaria Cilinodis Michx Small Fringed Black Bin 1652

3. Tiniaria Scandens (L.) Small. Climbing False Buckwheat

Fig. 1652

Polygonum scandens L. Sp. PI. 364. 1753-Tiniaria scandens Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 382. 1903.

Perennial, glabrous, stem climbing, 2°-20° long, rather. stout, striate, branched, rough on the ridges. Leaves ovate, acuminate, cordate at the base, 1'-6' long or the upper smaller, the larger long-petioled, finely punctate, the margins scabrous; ocreae oblique, smooth and glabrous; racemes usually numerous and panicled, interrupted, leafy, 2'-8' long; flowers yellowish-green, long-pedicelled; calyx 5-parted, the three outer segments very strongly winged and decurrent on the pedicels, especially in fruit; stamens 8; style almost none; stigmas 3; fruiting calyx 5"-6" long, the wings crisped, not incised; achene 2"-2 1/2" long, 3-angled, rather blunt at both ends, smooth, shining.

In woods and thickets. Nova Scotia to Ontario and British Columbia, south to Florida, Nebraska and Texas. Aug.-Sept.

4. Tiniaria Dumetorum (L.) Opiz. Copse Or Hedge Buckwheat

Fig. 1653

Polygonum dumetorum L. Sp. PI. Ed. 2, 522. 1762. Tiniaria dumetorum Opiz, Seznam 98. 1852.

Perennial, glabrous, similar to the preceding species, stem extensively twining, 2°-12° long, striate, much branched. Leaves ovate or somewhat hastate, and sometimes inequilateral, acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base, 1'-2 1/2' long, long-peti-oled, or the upper smaller and nearly sessile; ocreae oblique, smooth; racemes mostly axillary, numerous, much interrupted, leafy-bracted, 2'-5' long; flowers yellowish-green, pendulous; calyx 5-parted, the three outer segments winged or keeled and much enlarged in fruit; stamens 8; style short, 3-parted; fruiting calyx 3"-4" long, the wings nearly flat, not incised; achene oblong, 3-angled, 2" long, inclined to be pointed at both ends, black, smooth, shining.

About thickets and in woods, locally throughout the northeastern United States. Naturalized from Europe. False buckwheat. July-Sept.

4 Tiniaria Dumetorum L Opiz Copse Or Hedge Buckwhe 1653

5. Tiniaria Cristata (Engelm. & Gray) Small. Crested False Buckwheat

Fig. 1654

Polygonum cristatum Engelm. & Gray, Bost. Journ.

Nat. Hist. 5: 259. 1847. Tiniaria cristata Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 382. 1903.

Perennial, scurfy, stem slender, twining, 2°-10° long, more or less branched. Leaves triangular or ovate, l'-5' long, acuminate at the apex, undulate, truncate or cordate at the base, rather long-petioled; ocreae cylindric funnelform; flowers in axillary simple or compound often naked racemes 1'-5' long; pedicels about 2 1/2" long, jointed near the middle; calyx greenish-white, 2"-2 1/2" long, 5-parted to near the base, the 3 outer segments keeled and at maturity winged; stamens 8, included; style none; stigmas 3; fruiting calyx 3"-4" long, its wings incised; achene 3-angled, oblong, black, smooth, shining, about 1 1/2" long.

Sandy woods and rocky banks, Massachusetts to Florida, Oklahoma and Texas. Aug.-Oct. This may be a form of the preceding species.

5 Tiniaria Cristata Engelm Gray Small Crested Fals 1654