[?Oenoplea Hedw. f. Gen. 1: 151. 1806.]

Climbing or erect shrubs, with alternate petioled ovate or oblong coriaceous pinnately-veined leaves, and small greenish-white flowers in axillary or terminal clusters, or rarely solitary. Calyx-tube hemispheric, the limb 5-toothed. Petals 5, sessile, concave or cucullate. Stamens 5; filaments filiform. Disk filling the calyx-tube, covering but not united with the ovary. Drupe oval, obtuse, compressed, its flesh thin and coriaceous, its stone 2-celled. Seeds linear-oblong; cotyledons thin. [Name unexplained.]

About 10 species, the following typical one in southeastern North America, the others in Asia and tropical Africa.

1. Berchemia Scàndens (Hill.) Trelease. Supple-Jack. Rattan-Vine

Fig. 2822

Rhamnus scandens Hill, Hort. Kew. 453. pl. 20. 1768. R. volubilis L. f. Suppl. 152. 1781. Berchemia volubilis DC. Prodr. 2: 22. 1825. Berchemia scandens Trel. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 5: 364. 1889.

A glabrous high-climbing shrub, with slender tough terete branches. Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, 1'-2' long, 1/2 - 1' wide, acute, acuminate, or obtuse and cuspidate at the apex, obtuse or somewhat truncate at the base, dark green above, paler beneath, their margins undulate and sometimes slightly revolute; veins 8-12 pairs; petioles slender, 2"-5" long; flowers about 1 1/2" broad, mainly in small terminal panicles; petals acute; style short; drupe 3"-4" long, equalling or shorter than its slender pedicel, its stone crustaceous.

In low woods, Virginia to Florida, Kentucky, Missouri and Texas. Rattan. March-June.

1 Berchemia Sc Ndens Hill Trelease Supple Jack Rat 1164

2. RHÁMNUS [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 193. 1753.

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate pinnately veined and (in our species) deciduous leaves, and small axillary cymose, racemose or paniculate, perfect, dioecious, or polygamous flowers. Calyx-tube urceolate, its limb 4-5-toothed. Petals 4-5, short-clawed, mainly emar-ginate and hooded, or none. Disk free from the 3-4-celled ovary. Style 3-4-cleft. Drupe berry-like, oblong or globose, containing 2-4 separate nutlet-like stones. Seeds mainly obovoid; endosperm fleshy; cotyledons flat or revolute. [The ancient Greek name.]

About 90 species, natives of temperate and warm regions. Besides the following, some 10 others occur in the western United States and British America. Type species: Rhamnus cathartica L.

Flowers dioecious or polygamous; nutlets grooved.

Petals present; flowers mainly 4-merous.

Leaves broadly ovate; branches thorny; drupe with 3 or 4 nutlets.


R. cathartica.

Leaves ovate-lanceolate; drupe with 2 nutlets.


R. lanceolata.

Petals none; flowers 5-merous; drupe with 3 nutlets.


R. alnifolia.

Flowers perfect; nutlets smooth.

Umbels peduncled; leaves acute; calyx campanulate.


R. caroliniana.

Umbels sessile; leaves obtuse; calyx hemispheric.


R. Frangula.