Shrubs or trees, often spiny, with very hard wood, alternate coriaceous or membranous leaves, sometimes clustered on short spurs or at the nodes, and small pedicelled white or greenish flowers, fascicled in the axils. Calyx very deeply 5-parted, the segments much imbricated, unequal. Corolla 5-lobed, with a pair of lobe-like appendages at each sinus, its tube short. Stamens 5, inserted near the base of the corolla-tube; filaments filiform; anthers sagittate. Staminodia 5, petaloid, alternate with the stamens. Ovary 5-celled; style filiform. Berry globose or ellipsoid, small, the pericarp fleshy; enclosing a single erect seed. Seed shining, the hilum at the base. [Greek, ox [large] ash.]

About 35 species, natives of America. Besides the following, some 10 others occur in the southern and southwestern United States. Type species: Bumelia ret¨sa Sw.

Foliage, pedicels and calyx glabrous or very nearly so.


B. lycioides.

Foliage, pedicels and calyx tomentose-pubescent.


B. lanuginosa.

1. Bumelia Lycioides (L.) Pers. Southern Or Carolina Buckthorn

Fig. 3305

Sideroxylon lycioides L. Sp. Pl. Edw 2, 279. 1762. Bumelia lycioides Pers. Syn. 1: 237. 1805.

A shrub or small tree with maximum height of about 400 and trunk diameter of about 6'. the bark gray, the twigs commonly spiny. Leaves rather firm, tardily deciduous, glabrous on both sides; finely reticulate-veined, oblong, elliptic, or oblanceo-late, acute or acuminate at both ends, rarely obtuse at the apex, 2'-5' long, 1/4'-1 1/2' wide; petioles 2"-6" long; flowers about \\" broad, numerous in the dense axillary clusters; pedicels about the length of the petioles, glabrous; calyx-segments obtuse, glabrous; staminodia ovate, boat-shaped, entire; berry subglobose, black, 4"-5" long.

In moist thickets, Virginia to Illinois and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas. Wood hard, yellowish-brown; weight about 46 lbs. per cubic foot. Bumelia. Iron- or chittim-wood. Mock orange. Coma. June-Aug.

1 Bumelia Lycioides L Pers Southern Or Carolina Bu 16471 Bumelia Lycioides L Pers Southern Or Carolina Bu 1648

2. Bumelia Lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. Woolly Buckthorn

Fig. 3306

Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 122.

1803. Bumelia lanuginosa Pers. Syn. 1: 237. 1805.

A shrub or tree, sometimes reaching a height of 6o° and a trunk diameter of 3o, the twigs usually spiny. Leaves persistent, rather coriaceous, glabrous above, densely tomentose-pubescent beneath, oblanceolate, obovate or oblong, usually obtuse at the apex, narrowed or cuneate at the base, 1 1/2' - 3' long, 1/4'-1' wide; petioles 2"-6" long; flowers 3-18 in the fascicles, about 1 1/2" broad; pedicels tomen-tose, longer than the petioles; calyx-segments ovate, tomentose, obtusish; staminodia ovate, obscurely toothed; berry oval or globose, black, 4"-5" long.

In woods and thickets, Illinois to Kansas, Georgia, Florida and Texas. Wood soft, weak, yellowish-brown; weight per cubic foot 41 lbs. Shittim-wood. Black haw. Gum-elastic. June-July.