Trees or shrubs. Leaves large and generally thick, entire. Buds covered with condu-plicate sheathing stipules. Flowers large, fragrant. Sepals 3, petaloid. Petals 6-12, imbricated in 2-4 series. Anthers linear, introrse. Carpels spiked or capitate on the elevated or elongated receptacle, 2-ovuled, forming follicles at maturity. Seeds fleshy, anatropous, suspended from the ripe cones by slender filamentous threads. [In honor of Pierre Magnol, 1638-1715, Professor of Botany in Montpellier.]

A genus of about 25 species, natives of eastern North America, the West Indies, Mexico, eastern Asia and the Himalayas. Type species: Magnolia virginiana L.

Leaves auriculate, glabrous.


M. Fraseri.

Leaves cordate, white-pubescent beneath.


M. macrophylla.

Leaves acute at base.

Leaves 8'-2o' long, light green and somewhat pubescent beneath.


M. tripetala.

Leaves 3'-6' long, glaucous beneath.


M. virginiana.

Leaves rounded or truncate at the base, thin.


M. acuminata.

I. Magnolia Frāseri Walt. Fraser's Magnolia. Long- Or Ear-Leaved Umbrella-Tree

Fig. 1845

Magnolia Fraseri Walt. Fl. Car. 159. 1788. Magnolia auriculata Lam. Encycl. 3: 673. 1789.

A tree 25°-50° high, the trunk 5'-2o in diameter, straight, the branches widely spreading. Leaf-buds glabrous; leaves clustered at the ends of the branches, auriculate, 6'-20' long, 3'-8' broad, elongated-obovate or oblong, contracted below, glabrous, the lower surface light green, the upper surface darker; petioles slender, 1' - 3' long; flowers white, 3'-8' broad; petals spatulate or obovate, obtuse, much longer than the sepals; cone of fruit 3'-4' long, rose-colored when mature.

In mountain woods, Virginia and Kentucky to Florida and Mississippi. Heart-wood soft, brown; sap-wood white. Weight per cubic foot 31 lbs. North Carolina-bay. Cucumber-tree. Indian-physic. Water-lily tree. May-June.

I Magnolia Fr Seri Walt Fraser s Magnolia Long Or  187I Magnolia Fr Seri Walt Fraser s Magnolia Long Or  188

2. Magnolia Macrophylla Michx. Great-Leaved Magnolia. Large-Leaved Umbrella-Tree, Or Cucumber-Tree

Fig. 1846

Magnolia macrophylla Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 327. 1803.

A tree 20°-60° high, the trunk 6'-2o' in diameter, bark gray. Leaf-blades silky-pubescent; leaves oblong or obovate, blunt, cordate, 1°-3 1/2° long, 8'-14' broad, glabrous and green above, glaucous-white and pubescent beneath; petioles stout, 2'-4' long; flowers 8"-15' in diameter, white with a large purple center; petals ovate-oblong, obtuse, thrice the length of the rounded sepals; cone of fruit ovoid-cylindric, 4'-6' long, bright rose-colored at maturity.

In woods, southeastern Kentucky to North Carolina, Florida, Arkansas and Louisiana. Heart-wood brown, satiny, hard; sap-wood light yellow; weight per cubic foot 33 lbs. Elk-bark. Silver-leaf. Big-bloom. May-June.

2 Magnolia Macrophylla Michx Great Leaved Magnolia 189