Perennial acaulescent herbs propagating by runners, with alternate basal tufted petioled 3-foliolate leaves, and sheathing membranous stipules. Flowers white, corymbose or racemose on erect naked scapes, polygamo-dioecious, the pedicels often recurved. Calyx persistent, its tube obconic or turbinate, 5-bracteolate, deeply 5-lobed. Petals 5, obovate, short-clawed. Stamens 00; filaments slender. Carpels 00, inserted on a glabrous convex or elongated receptacle, which becomes fleshy or pulpy in fruit; style lateral. Achenes ∞, minute, dry, crustaceous. Seed ascending. [Latin, fragum, strawberry, fragrance.]

About 35 species, natives of the north temperate zone and the Andes of South America. Besides the following, some 15 others occur in western North America. Type species: Fragaria vesca L.

Achenes imbedded in pits on the fruit; fruiting scape shorter than the leaves.

Leaflets oblong or narrowly obovate; fruit oblong-conic.


F. canadensis.

Leaflets broadly oval or obovate; fruit globose or ovoid.

Pedicels with long spreading hairs.


F. Grayana.

Pedicels appressed-pubescent.


F. virginiana.

Achenes borne on the surface of the fruit; fruiting scape as long as or exceeding the leaves.

Stout; leaflets thickish; fruit ovoid or ovoid-conic.


F. vesca.

Slender; leaflets thin; fruit elongated-conic.


F. americana.

11 Fragaria Tourn L Sp Pl 494 1753 594

1. Fragaria Canadensis Michx. Northern Wild Strawberry

Fig. 2254

Fragaria canadensis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 299. 1803.

Petioles slender, loosely villous, 4-7' high. Leaflets oblong or the middle one narrowly cuneate-obovate, obtuse, rather few-toothed, 9"-2' long, 5"-10" wide, glabrous or nearly so above even when young, more or less appressed-pubescent beneath; scapes pubescent with appressed hairs; scape somewhat shorter than the leaves; flowers few, slender-pedicelled, 7"-9" broad; calyx-lobes lanceolate, acuminate; fruit oblong, or oblong-conic, 5"-6" long; achenes sunken in pits.

In fields and meadows, Newfoundland to Mackenzie, New York and Michigan. Mountain-strawberry. May-July.

Fragaria multicipita Fernald, from gravelly beaches in Gaspé County, Quebec, differs in being appressed-pubescent and having subglobose fruit.

1 Fragaria Canadensis Michx Northern Wild Strawber 595

2. Fragaria Grayàna Vilmorin. Gray's Strawberry. Fie. 2253.

F. Grayana Vilmorin; Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 8: 202.

1857. F. virginiana illinoensis Prince; A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 155. 1867.

Similar to F. virginiana, and perhaps a race of that species, but stouter. Leaves firmer in texture; petioles densely clothed with spreading or reflexed hairs; leaflets acute or obtuse, coarsely serrate; scape stout, 4'-6' high, hirsute like the petioles; pedicels with spreading hairs; calyx-lobes and bractlets linear-lanceolate; petals nearly orbicular; fruit subglobose, 7"-8" in diameter, the achenes imbedded in pits.

Dry soil, Indiana to Missouri, Alabama and Louisiana. April-May.

3. Fragaria virginiàna Duchesne.

Virginia or Scarlet Strawberry.

Fief. 2252.

F. virginiana Duchesne, Hist. Nat. Fras. 204.

1766. F. australis Rydb. N. Am. Fl. 22: 361. 1908. Fragaria terrae-novae Rydb. Mem. Dep. Bot.

Col. Univ. 2: 182. 1898.

Rather stout, tufted, dark green, more or less villous-pubescent with spreading or sometimes appressed hairs. Petioles 2'-6' long; leaflets thick, or even coriaceous, short-stalked or sessile, broadly oval or obovate, obtuse, dentate-serrate, the terminal one generally cuneate, the lateral inequilateral at the base; scape equalling or shorter than the leaves, the fruit being generally borne below them; hairs of the scape more or less spreading; pedicels ap-pressed-pubescent; calyx-lobes, at least of the sterile flowers, erect at maturity, lanceolate; petals obovate; fruit red, ovoid, the achenes imbedded in nits.

In dry soil, Newfoundland to South Dakota, Florida and Oklahoma. Consists of several races. April-June.

1 Fragaria Canadensis Michx Northern Wild Strawber 5961 Fragaria Canadensis Michx Northern Wild Strawber 597