Shrubs or trees (or some exotic species perennial herbs), with opposite pinnate leaves, serrate or laciniate leaflets, and small white or pinkish flowers in compound depressed or thyrsoid cymes. Calyx-tube ovoid or turbinate, 3-5-toothed or 3-5-lobed. Corolla rotate or slightly campanulate, regular, 3-5-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted at the base of the corolla; filaments slender; anthers oblong. Ovary 3-5-celled; style short, 3-parted; ovules 1 in each cavity, pendulous. Drupe berry-like, containing 3-5, 1-seeded nutlets. Endosperm fleshy; embryo nearly as long as the seed. [Latin name of the elder.]

About 25 species, of wide geographic distribution. In addition to the following, about 10 others occur in western North America. Type species: Sambucus nigra L. Cyme convex; fruit purplish black.

1. S. canadensis.

Cyme thyrsoid-paniculate, longer than broad; fruit red.

2. S. racemosa.

1 Sambucus Tourn L Sp Pl 269 1753 626

1. Sambucus Canadensis L. American Elder. Sweet Or Common Elder

Fig. 3955

Sambucus canadensis L. Sp. Pl. 269. 1753.

A shrub, 4°-10° high, glabrous or very nearly so, the stems but little woody, the younger ones with large white pith. Leaflets 5-11, usually 7, ovate or oval, acuminate or acute at the apex, short-stalked, glabrous above, sometimes pubescent beneath, 2'-5' long, sharply serrate, sometimes stipellate; cymes convex, broader than high; flowers white, about \\" broad; drupe deep purple or black, nearly 3" in diameter; nutlets roughened.

In moist soil, Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Manitoba, Kansas and Texas. Also in the West Indies. Ascends to 4000 ft. in North Carolina. Called also elder-blow, elder-berry. The flowers and fruit have strong medicinal properties. Leaves heavy-scented when crushed, those of young shoots often stipulate. June-July.

2. Sambucus Racemosa L. Red-Berried Elder

Fig. 3956

S. racemosa L. Sp. Pl. 270. 1753.

S. pubens Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 181. 1803.

A shrub, 2°-12° high, the twigs and leaves commonly pubescent; stems woody, the younger with reddish-brown pith. Leaflets 5-7, ovate-lanceolate or oval, acuminate at the apex, often narrowed and usually inequilateral at the base, 2'-5' long, not stipellate, sharply serrate; cymes thyrsoid, longer than broad; flowers whitish, turning brown in drying; drupe scarlet or red, 2"-3" in diameter; nutlets very minutely roughened.

In rocky places, Newfoundland to Alaska, British Columbia, Georgia, Michigan, Colorado and California. Fruit rarely white. April-May. Called also mountain elder. Poison-elder (Me.). Boor- or bore-tree. Boutry. Ascends to 5000 ft. in Virginia. Sambucus pubens dissecta Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 304. 1894, is a race with leaflets laciniate. Lake Superior and Pennsylvania.

Sambucus laciniata Mill., a cut-leaved race of the related European 5. nigra L., has been found at Cape May, N. J., perhaps escaped from cultivation.

2 Sambucus Racemosa L Red Berried Elder 627