This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Herbs, or some species shrubs, with clustered usually showy flowers, the clusters mostly spiked, racemed, or panicled. Calyx ovoid, tubular or campanulate, mostly naked in the throat, 2-lipped; upper lip entire or 3-toothed; lower lip 2-cleft or 2-toothed. Corolla strongly 2-lipped; upper lip usually concave, sometimes arched, entire, emarginate or 2-lobed; lower lip spreading or drooping, 3-cleft or 3-lobed. Anther-bearing stamens 2 (the posterior pair wanting or rudimentary); filaments usually short; connective of the anthers transverse, linear or filiform, bearing a perfect anther-sac on its upper end, its lower end dilated, capitate or sometimes bearing a small or rudimentary one. Ovary deeply 4-parted; style 2-cleft at the summit. Nutlets smooth, usually developing mucilage and spiral tubes when wetted. [Latin, salvus, safe from its healing virtues.]
About 500 species, of wide distribution in temperate and tropical regions. Besides the following, some 25 others occur in southern and western North America. Type species: Salvia officinalis L.
Leaves mostly basal, only 1-3 pairs on the stem.
Leaves lyrate-pinnatifid or repand; upper corolla-lip short.
1. S.. lyrata.
Leaves crenulate; upper lip arched, longer than the lower.
2. S. pratensis.
Stem leafy, bearing several pairs of leaves. Leaves narrowly oblong, or lanceolate. Corolla 10"-15" long, its tube exserted.
3. S. Pitcheri.
Corolla 4"-6 long, its tube not exserted. Leaves ovate, or broadly oval.
Upper corolla-lip short, not exceeding the lower.
4. S. lanceifolia.
Leaves merely crenate or crenulate; fruiting calyx spreading.
5. S. urticifolia.
Leaves pinnatihd, sinuate or incised; fruiting calyx deflexed.
6. S. Verbenaca.
Upper lip of corolla arched, longer than the lower.
7. S. Sclarea.
Salvia lyrata L. Sp. Pl. 23. 1753.
Perennial or biennial, hirsute or pubescent; stem slender, simple, or sparingly branched, erect, 1°-3° high, bearing 1 or 2 distant pairs of small leaves (rarely leafless), and several rather distant whorls of large violet flowers. Basal leaves tufted, long-petioled, obovate or broadly oblong, lyrate-pinnatifid or repand-dentate, thin, 3'-8' long; stem-leaves similar, or narrower and entire, sessile, or short-petioled; clusters distant, about 6-flowered; calyx campanulate, the teeth of its upper lip subulate, those of the lower longer, aristulate; corolla about 1' long, the tube very narrow below, the upper lip much smaller than the lower; filaments slender; anther-sacs borne on both the upper and lower ends of the connective, the lower one often smaller.