This stiff, erect perennial species grows from six to fifteen inches high. The branching stem is nearly smooth, and the lance-shaped, dull green leaves are mostly in whorls of four. The white flowers are borne terminally in twos and threes. The Wild Madder is found from May to July, in damp, shady places, and in wet meadows and swamp lands, from Canada to North Carolina and Tennessee, west to Michigan, Nebraska and Arizona. The root of the Wild Madder was used by the Indians for staining their feathers, skins and other ornaments red.