This section is from the book "Wild Flowers East Of The Rockies", by Chester A. Reed. Also available from Amazon: Wild Flowers East Of The Rockies.
Agrimony (Agrimonia Gryposepala) is a common weed found on the borders of swamps or thickets. It has a tall, hairy, simple stem from two to four feet high. The bright green leaves are variously compounded, from three small leaflets at the top of the stem to large leaves made up of seven, lance-shaped, toothed leaflets, interspersed with smaller ones on the lower part of the stalk.
The flowers are in a long, many-flowered spike at the top of the stalk. Each flower is tiny, has five yellow petals and numerous, orange stamens, giving the spike a bright, golden-yellow appearance. They open from the bottom of the spike, towards the top, and each plant is in bloom for a long period Our ancestors used the leaves for various medicinal concoctions, and some even used them for making tea. It is a common plant from N. B. to N. C. and westwards to Cal.
A. Creeping Dalibarda.
B. Yellow Avens.
Creeping Dalibarda (Dalibarda Repens) is a delicate woodland plant, found from N. B. to Manitoba and south to N. J., Ohio and Mich. It has creeping, densely-tufted rootstalks, from which spring numerous heart-shaped leaves on long petioles; these leaves, their stems and the flower stalks are downy, the former being scallop-edged or toothed.
Dalibarda has two kinds of flowers: The first on long, upright scapes spread about half an inch, have five oval, white petals and many stamens; the petals are deciduous, faling off soon after the flower opens. The second kind of flowers are cleistogamous ones (fertilized in the bud) on short curving peduncles from the root. These last flowers are fertile, while many of those with petals are not. Dalibarda blooms from June to September in rich woods; when not in flower, its leaves are often mistaken for those of some of the violets.
Yellow Avens (Geum Strictum) grows in moist locations in swamps or thickets. The texture of the whole plant, leaves and stems, is rough and coarse. The root leaves are interruptedly pinnate, the segments being wedge-shaped and toothed; the stem leaves have three to five oblong, acute, toothed leaflets. The flowers have quite large golden-yellow petals and a downy receptacle. This species is common from Newfoundland to Manitoba and south to N. C. and Mo.
Purple Avens (Geum Rivale) is an aquatic or marsh species with lyre-shaped root leaves and few, 3-lobed stem leaves. The nodding flowers have rusty-purple petals terminating in a claw; the calyx is purplish and bell-shaped. The flower stalk is from one to two feet in height. Purple or Water Avens is common in northern U. S. and southern Canada.
Wild Swamp Rose. Rosa Carolina.