Stems numerous from a horizontal, branching rootstock, said to be parasitic on the roots of adjacent herbs, 6 to 18 inches tall, usually branched and very leafy. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, pale green, pointed at each end, sessile, one-half to 1 inches long, the lower ones smaller. Flowers numerous in terminal cymes, corymbose at the summit of the stem, or also axillary, their branches divergent or ascending, greenish white, white, or purplish, about one-fifth of an inch long, calyx usually five-lobed, corolla none. Fruit a globose drupe about one-fourth of an inch in diameter, crowned by the upper part of the calyx tube and its five oblong lobes.

Memoir 15 N. Y. State Museum

Plate 28

B. Bastard Toadflax

B. Bastard Toadflax - Comandra umbellate

In dry fields and thickets, especially sandy soil, Cape Breton Island to Ontario and Assiniboia, south to Georgia, Kansas and Arkansas. At Bergen swamp in Genesee county, New York, it grows in an open marl bog, which, however, is dry in certain seasons, in company with Arethusa bulbosa, Cypripedium candidum, Scirpus caespitosus, Anticlea chlorantha, Triantha glutinosa, So1idago hough-tonii, and other bog plants, a habitat most unusual for this species.