Plants smooth, 3 to 10 inches high, from a thickened base, densely scaly, light brown, usually clustered, covered all over with stiff, overlapping scales. Upper scales lanceolate or ovate, pointed, one-half to 1 inch long, lowest scales much smaller. Flowers yellowish, each with two small bracts beneath the calyx, together forming a thick, dense spike, one-half to 1 inch thick; each flower about one-half of an inch long. Calyx oblique, deeply split on the lower side, three to four-toothed on the tipper side. Corolla pale yellow, strongly two-lipped, the tube slightly curved, the upper lip concave, nearly erect and notched, the lower lip spreading, three-lobed and shorter than the upper lip. Stamens projecting from the flower. Fruit an ovoid-globose capsule nearly one-half of an inch long.

In rich woods at the base of trees and parasitic upon their roots, Maine to Ontario and Michigan, south to Florida, Alabama and Tennessee. Flowering from May to August.

Figure XXXI Squawroot or Cancer root (Conopholis americana (Carl von Linne) Wallroth)

Figure XXXI Squawroot or Cancer-root (Conopholis americana (Carl von Linne) Wallroth)