Stems stout, simple, glabrous, 6 to 14 inches high from a perennial, notched but continuous rootstock. Basal leaves long petioled, 4 to 5 inches broad, with three broadly ovate, dentate or somewhat lobed leaflets each about 2 inches long; stem leaves usually two, opposite or nearly so, short petioled and also three-divided, the leaflets often narrower than those of the basal leaves. Flowers white, one-half to two-thirds of an inch broad.

In rich woods, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Minnesota, south to South Carolina and Kentucky. Flowering usually in late April and in May.

Memoir 15 N. Y. State Museum

Plate 81

B. Two Leaved Toothwort Or Crinkleroot

B. Two-Leaved Toothwort Or Crinkleroot - Dentaria diphylla

The Large Toothwort (Dentaria maxima Nuttall) has a jointed rootstock and three stem leaves (sometimes two or as many as five or six), alternate, with ovate and obovate toothed and cleft leaflets and large pale-purple flowers. It is rare and local in distribution.

The species of Dentaria are members of the Mustard family (Cruciferae) which contains a very large number of small-flowered, inconspicuous plants, many of them weeds, as well as a number of cultivated species which have become naturalized or established throughout the State.