Stems slender, smooth or but slightly pubescent, usually unbranched, ascending or erect but not stiff, 1 to 3 feet long, from a perennial, scaly rootstock. Lower and basal leaves, 6 to 10 inches long, pinnately divided into five to seven oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, pointed, toothed or incised segments, 1 to 2 inches long; upper leaves similar but smaller, shorter petioled and with fewer segments. Flowers white or violet (at high altitudes nearly purple) in simple or forked, slender-stalked cymes, the pedicels of the flowers hairy. Calyx deeply parted into five linear, hairy, spreading segments. Corolla about one-third of an inch long, bell-shaped, with five oblong, blunt lobes. Stamens five, projecting from the flower. Fruit a capsule about one-sixth of an inch in diameter.

Memoir 15 N. Y. State Museum

Plate 180

Virginia Waterleaf   Hydrophyllum virginianum

Virginia Waterleaf - Hydrophyllum virginianum

In rich woods and thickets, Quebec to South Dakota, south to South Carolina and Kansas. Flowering in June and July or in the north as late as August.

The Appendaged Watcrleaf (Hydrophyllum appendic-ulatum Michaux) is rough-hairy all over; the flowers violet to purple and one-half to two-thirds of an inch long with short, reflexed appendages between the calyx lobes. The Broad-leaved Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum canadense Linnaeus) has leaf blades nearly orbicular, palmately five to nine-lobed and the entire plant smooth or nearly so.