185. Lady's Mantle, Alchemilla vulgaris, Rose family. A common plant of moist pastures, flowering in summer: it is readily recognised by its leaves, which are almost round and palm-lobed, with about 7 serrate lobes: they are unwettable, and when plunged in water or covered with rain-drops take on a silvery appearance: they are provided with stipules, and when young are plaited: the flowers are small, star-like, yellowish green, and occur in brushes at the end of the flowering stems.
186. Golden Saxifrage, Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, Saxifrage family. A spring flowering plant of stream-sides and wet places, particularly in woods: the stem may be 6 ins. high, with pairs of shortly stalked, roundish leaves with scalloped edges: the flowers are small in numerous little groups at the apex of the stem, and are green with a golden tinge.
187. Moschatel, Adoxa Moschatellina, Moschatel family. A delicate little plant of damp woods, flowering in spring: the stem is horizontal, and lies just under the surface of the soil: it sends up several stalked leaves, and a single flower-stalk with 2 leaves, and a little head of 5 flowers: the leaves are compound, with 3 leaflets, each 3-lobed: the flowers are pale green: the apical flower of the head has 4 petals, and the others have each 5.
185. Lady's Mantle.
186. Golden Saxifrage.
188. Goose-foot, Fat Hen, Chenopodium album, Goose-foot family. A common weed of waste ground and cultivated land, flowering in autumn: the stem is tall and branched, with stalked rhomboid-shaped leaves, the margins of which are coarsely toothed: the flowers are small and greenish, in little spikes in the axils of the upper leaves: the plant has a slightly mealy appearance.
189. Black Bindweed, Polygonum Convolvulus, Dock family. A common and troublesome weed of gardens: the root descends to great depths, and is very difficult to eradicate: in corn-fields it twines round the stems of the corn: the leaves are arrow-shaped, and in their axils occur in summer and autumn little groups of green flowers, tinged with pink.
190. Curled Dock, Rumex crispus, Dock family. The stem is about 3 ft. high, and bears very large, long, lance-shaped, wavy leaves: the flowers are small, green, pendulous, and occur in prominent, branched, terminal spikes: the stem and flowers have often a reddish tinge: there are several closely-related species, which differ only in details: common about cultivated land, flowering in summer and autumn.
188. Goose-foot, Fat Hen.
189. Black Bindweed.
190. Curled Dock.
191. Petty Spurge, Euphorbia Peplus, Spurge family. The Spurges are readily recognised among our green-flowered plants by the fact that they exude a milky juice when wounded: the stem is branched, with smooth leaves of a fine green, oval or ovate in shape: the apparent flowers are small and green; in reality they are little inflorescences of much-simplified flowers: a common garden weed, flowering in autumn: the Sun Spurge is a common field weed, with serrate leaves and yellowish green inflorescences.
191. Petty Spurge.
192. Dog's Mercury.
192. Dog's Mercury, Mercurialis peren-nis, Spurge family. A common spring plant of shady woods: the stem is about 1 ft. high, with pairs of broadly lance-shaped, serrate leaves: the flowers are of two kinds, male and female, occurring on different plants: they are in little spikes in the axils of the upper leaves, the former yellowish green, the latter green: highly poisonous.
193. Bur-reed, Sparganium erectum, Bur-reed family. A common plant growing in the muddy margins of sluggish streams: the stem is about 2 ft. high, and is slightly branched: the flowers are gathered into spiky, spherical, green heads, which are situated about the tips of the branches: the leaves are long and sword-shaped: flowers in summer.
194. Cuckoo-Pint, Lords-and-Ladies, Arum maculatum, Cuckoo-pint family. The plant at once attracts attention by its large, glossy, arrow-shaped leaves, which rise from the ground on longish stalks: among them appear in April or May the curious inflorescences: these consist of a stalk, on which are arranged first female flowers reduced to a single seed-vessel, then male flowers reduced to a single stamen, above these a circle of stout hairs, and finally a long, dark purple club, the whole being enclosed by a long, pointed, pale green hood: in autumn the hood and the upper parts of the inflorescence die away, leaving the stalk crowned by a little bunch of scarlet berries: not uncommon in woods and hedges.
194. Cuckoo-Pint, Lords-and-Ladies-.
195. Cotton-Grass, Eriophorum polystachion, Sedge family. A striking plant of boggy ground: the leaves are long, narrow, and pointed: the stem is slender, about 1 ft. high, and bears several heads of flowers on delicate drooping flower-stalks: in colour they are greenish, tinged with yellow and brown: the plant is most remarkable when in fruit, as the head then presents the appearance of a flock of cotton-wool: Hare's-tail Cotton-grass, a related species, bears only a single, erect flower-head on each stalk; flowers in summer.