This section is from the book "Our Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms and How to Distinguish Them", by W. Hamilton Gibson. Also available from Amazon: Our Edible Toadstools And Mushrooms And How To Distinguish Them.
In this order the hymenium, or spore-bearing surface, is inferior, i.e., on the under side of the pileus, and is spread over lamellae or gills, which radiate from the stem of the fungus, and each of which may be separated into two filmy flat divisions.
On the opposite page is shown an Agaric in vertical section, disclosing a full side view of the gills. A highly magnified view of this gill-surface is indicated herewith, duly indexed, the sporophore being shown in the act of shedding its spores from their points of attachment to the four stigmata at the summit. These fruitful four-pointed sporo-phores or basidia are intermingled with the cystidia and sterile cells, the whole mass forming the surface of the hymenium. The dissemination of the Agaric is further considered in a later chapter on "Spore-prints."
The most perfect botanical type of the Agarics is the Amanita, already sufficiently dwelt upon.
We will now proceed to the consideration of other examples in which the symbol of the fatal cup is happily absent, and whose identities as esculent species are clearly denoted by individual characteristics.
Spore-Surface Magnified. Edible Agarics. Meadow Mushroom