Introduced. Perennial. Propagates by seeds. Time of bloom: July to September. Seed-time: Late August to November.

Range: Newfoundland to Ontario, and southward to New Jersey. Habitat: Fields, pastures, roadsides, and waste places.

Considered in Europe a very pernicious grassland weed, because of its large, branching, perennial roots, hard, woody stems, and rough foliage, which cattle will not touch either as green forage or as hay.

Stems one to two feet in height, rough-hairy, grooved, erect, and branching. Leaves also rough-hairy, the lower and basal ones three to six inches in length, spatulate-oblong, sparsely toothed or entire, tapering to long petioles; the upper ones small, lance-shaped, entire, sessile or partly clasping, growing quite up to and subtending the heads. These are a little less than an inch broad, with rosy purple florets, all tubular, perfect, and fertile; involucre globose, the bracts closely imbricated, their appendages very long and edged with stiff hairs like minute combs; the outer and middle rows both thus fringed, the inner one merely lacerate; all black or very dark brown, or the inner row lighter in color than the other two. Achenes four-sided, without pappus or sometimes with a ring of minute scales.

Means of control the same as for the preceding species.