Native. Perennial. Propagates by seeds and by rootstocks.

Time of bloom: Late July to October.

Seed-time: September to November.

Range: Newfoundland and New Brunswick to the Northwest Territory and British Columbia, southward to Florida and Arizona.

Habitat: Thickets and rich, open soil; meadows and fence rows.

In good soil this stately plant often attains eight or more feet in height, but is oftener three to six feet tall, rather slender, usually simple, hairy toward the top but becoming smooth below. Leaves alternate, narrow lance-shaped, thin, three-nerved, finely toothed, smooth above but finely hairy beneath, especially on the veins, pointed at both ends, the lower ones tapering to petioles, the upper ones becoming smaller, nearly entire and sessile. Panicle large, broadly pyramidal, the racemes recurved and one-sided, densely crowded, the heads small and rather dull yellow, with nine to fifteen rays, the pedicels hairy. Achenes smooth or very slightly hairy, with fine, bristly pappus. (Fig. 296.)

Fig. 296.  Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis). X 1/6.

Fig. 296. -Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis). X 1/6.

Means Of Control

Prevent the development and distribution of the plumed seeds by close cutting while in early bloom. Its creeping, underground stems make this plant more difficult of suppression than others of its kindred, but fall plowing and exposure of the rootstocks to sun-drying and freezing will destroy them. Small areas should be grubbed out for the protection of neighboring ground.