Introduced. Biennial. Propagates by seed.

Time of bloom: Blossoms most abundantly in July and August, but produces scattering flowers until late autumn. Seed-time: August until frost-killed.

Range: Middle Atlantic States and inland to West Virginia. Habitat: Dry fields, roadsides, and waste places.

First-year tufts of the large, pinnatifid root-leaves of this weed resemble those of the Dandelion very much and might be mistaken for them; it has also a similar long, fleshy taproot. But the fruiting stalks, which appear in the second year, are one to three feet high, very slender, round, rigid, bare except for a few scattering stem-leaves so narrow and small as to seem mere awl-like bracts, smooth except that below the many branches the stem bristles with small, fine prickles. Heads yellow, less than a half-inch broad, on short peduncles; they terminate the branches in groups of two or three, and also grow singly and sessile on the sides of the nearly naked branches. Achene nearly black, usually five-ribbed, prickly at the top, with a slender beak about as long as the seed; the pappus attached to it is copious, fine, and shining white. (Fig. 369.)

Means Of Control

Hoe-cutting or spudding off the crowns of first-year plants; deep cutting of fruiting stems before any seed matures. In cultivated ground the weeds are destroyed by the necessary tillage.

Fig. 369.   Gum Succory (Chondrilla juncea). X 1/4.

Fig. 369. - Gum Succory (Chondrilla juncea). X 1/4.