This section is from the book "A Manual Of Weeds", by Ada E. Georgia. Also available from Amazon: A Manual Of Weeds.
Introduced. Annual or biennial. Propagates by seeds.
Time of bloom: June to August.
Seed-time: July to September.
Range: Nova Scotia to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, westward to
Michigan. Habitat: Fields and waste places.
Not a common weed in this country as yet, but Professor Beal reports that wherever found in Michigan, it "thrives and spreads at an alarming pace."
Stem one to two feet high, smooth or sparsely set with bristly hairs, branching from the base, leafy only below. Leaves oblong to lance-shaped in outline but deeply and irregularly toothed or somewhat pinnatifid, narrowing to petioles. Flowers in terminal racemes, each about a half-inch broad, golden yellow. Siliques about an inch long, linear, somewhat flattened and almost beakless, erect, on very slender spreading pedicels; the two cells of the pod each contain a double row of small reddish brown, slightly flattened seeds. (Fig. 132.)
Prevent seed production by close cutting or pulling before the first flowers mature.