Native. Perennial. Propagates by seeds.

Time of bloom: July to October.

Seed-time: August to November.

Range: Pennsylvania to Wisconsin, southward to Florida and Louisiana. Habitat: Meadows, fence rows, open woods, and thickets.

A tall, graceful species, common in Southern and Western States and sometimes cultivated and escaping in the East. Stem three to eight feet high, round, smooth, slender, branching at the top. Leaves opposite, three to six inches or more in length, thick, firm, the lower ones usually three-parted with entire, lance-shaped segments; upper leaves undivided, lance-shaped, entire, all with rough edges and pinnate veins. Heads very many, about an inch and a half broad, on slender peduncles, in open corymbose clusters; rays six to ten, obtuse, entire, bright golden yellow; disks brownish; outer bracts of the involucre linear, obtuse, spreading, united at base, much narrower than the ovate, pointed, inner ones; when rolled between the fingers the heads exhale the odor of anise. Achenes oblong elliptic, narrowly winged, and without a pappus.

Means Of Control

Prevention of seeding and starvation of the roots by persistent cutting. Hand-pulling or grubbing out the roots.