This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
This apparatus consists of two generators and three cylinders, with two sediment traps, two gas domes, two automatic valves, one patent regulating valve, and one double-action pressure pump. The illustration explains fully the manner of connecting and working this machine.
We extract from the description as given by the manufacturers the following:
"A, A, the two generators; B, B, the vitriol chambers; C, C, C, the cylinders, fountains, receivers, or saturators, as variously called; D, D, D, the purifiers; E, the double-action force pump, fitted for steam or hand power, with changeable leverage, and made of bronze metal.
"The use of a pump to force water against pressure is nothing new, and by those possessing steam power it is very much appreciated. It can also be used to force water to an elevated cistern for the general use of the establishment. It is used for forcing water into fountains containing a pressure of gas, thereby utilizing all the gas after the first charge of water is exhausted. The handle on the wheel is adjustable, and can be set at any point desired to give a greater or less degree of leverage, as the operator may wish; pulleys can be fitted to shaft so as to use power, which is preferable to hand work, as it requires great force to pump against sixty to eighty pounds. "With power this pump will eject into the cylinders at the rate of five to six hundred gallons per hour.
"F, F, the gas domes, to arrest and hold the effervescence, and stop, as far as possible, the passage of any material part of the generator contents into pipes or cylinders, thus preventing clogging of pipes, as well as any contamination of contents of cylinders.
"G, G, the sediment traps, or condensers, or might be properly termed dry purifiers. This vessel receives the gas and passes it downward, or, bringing it to a partial state of rest, permits all sediment and moisture to pass to the bottom, and nothing but pure gas can enter the wet purifiers, thus insuring the purity of the gas entering the cylinders.
"H, H, the automatic check valves, operating without care or atten-17 tion on the part of the operator, stopping effectually the back flow of gas from the cylinders or generator containing the charge to the one that is empty, and when the gas is exhausted from the generator previously charged. The opposite one being put under pressure, the opposite valve closes, effectually stopping all gas from returning to the empty generator; I, I, the low-down lever which operates the vitriol valve, with cam lock; J, J, the weighted safety valve, which has paralleled pivoted motion, and the least possible friction for relieving an over-charged generator; K, one of the graduating or reducing valves. Each valve may be set to take the gas from the generator which is charged to 200 pounds, the proper pressure for charging soda-water fountains, and deliver to one of the receivers at a pressure suitable for syphons, say 150 pounds. Another valve will deliver at 60 pounds to other receivers, and every bottle may be charged at a uniform pressure. L, L, the old hand valve, of no use unless, from some unforeseen cause, the automatic valve should receive some obstacle to its closing tight, which is comparatively impossible, as the gas passing this point is freed of all foreign matter by the use of the trap.
Fig. 160. - Puffer's Apparatus with Pump.
"M, M, the equalizing pipes, conducting gas from generator to vitriol chambers; N, N, the pipes conducting gas from generators to traps; 0, 0, the pipes conducting gas from traps to wet purifiers; P, P, the pipes conducting gas from first to second and third purifiers; Q, one of the pipes leading gas from the receivers to the fountains; R, R, distributes gas to the receiver or fountains; S, S, takes water from the receiver or fountains; T, T, T, conducts the water from the pump to receivers or fountains; U, U, U, the pipes for attaching the pressure gauge; V, V, pressure gauges".
This set (Fig. 161) is composed of the same heavy casting used in the other set of these manufacturers, and is in lining and every other point equal to them, and only differs from them by having the purifiers or gas-washers placed at the side of generator instead of on top of cylinders, and having no gas domes and sediment traps. One of the advantages of the purifiers being placed at side, is that such machinery necessarily occupies less perpendicular space, and the process of filling purifiers is an easier one.
The detached gas-washer (Fig. 162) is an important adjunct to generators of any and all makes, lacking sufficient purifying capacity. Being compact in form, it requires little space, and can be used either in connection with the purifier on generator or independently.
The engraving (Fig. 163) represents a portion of a generator with the valve attached. This valve, when drawn back or opened for the purpose of emptying the generator of its contents, leaves no surface for the refuse matter to rest upon; and not a pound of internal pressure is required to entirely discharge the contents of the generator. As, however, most operators use some pressure, not more than five pounds should be used when this valve is opened. This valve has a packing within the case, which effectually prevents the marble dust coming in contact with the screw, and so binding it as to cause great trouble in operating.
Fig 161. - Puffer's Apparatus without Pump.
"When high internal pressure has to be used to blow off the contents of a generator, there is a liability of the collapsing of body lining. Therefore any discharge valve, that offers the advantage of emptying the generator without any or with a but slight gas pressure, is an improvement on an apparatus.
Fig. 162. - Detached Gas Washer.
Fig. 163 - Puffer's Anti-Clogging Valve.
A, Part of shell of generator; E, Lead lining; C, The bung, projecting through generator; D, Shell or case for valve; E, Stem or shaft working the valve; F, Packing seated against face of bung; G, Nut retaining packing in place; H, Cap to hold packing round the stem; I, Packing inside the box; J, Wheel to operate valve; K, Packing inside the case; L, Set that forces back the lead packing; M, Nut to screw bung fast to generator.
Fig. 164. The vitriol in its descent is diverted from the centre to the side of body, and drops into the generator without coming in contact with the agitator, regardless of its position.
A is the body of generator; B is the lead lining; G is the gas dome; H H are the large openings for rapid filling and discharging of contents; I is the large exit, allowing the easy and quiet flow of gas to the dome; M is the outlet for flow of gas from dome to purifiers; R is the spout diverting the flow of acid to the side of generator; E and D, the propelling and repropelling blades; K, idle space between the flowing currents; A, acid chamber; N, outer shell; O, lead lining; P, vitriol rod; U, gas in-let; T, filling bung.
Fig. 164. - Sectional View op Generator with Gas Dome.
The valve, Fig. 165, is attached to the body of the generator. The construction of this valve consists in the arrangement of it in different sections or parts, by which the valve seat may be conveniently reached, for the purpose of cleaning or any other object. By hoisting the lever the valve piston may be turned one side, the two valve seats may be wiped clean, or, if a stoppage should occur, the passageway can be readily unclogged without interfering with the charge contained within the generator. By an ingenious device the leverage of the valve is made to work upon a pivot inside the plunger, by which all friction is avoided, and the action of the valve made perfectly perpendicular. This arrangement is a delicately adjusted balance to any hydrostatic pressure devised, and it is so constructed that the lever may be placed in any direction on the generator that the operator may desire.
Attached to the handle of the agitator is a pointer or index, which describes a circle corresponding to the circular line of figures near the end of the fountain. Attached to the agitator, on the inside of the fountain, is a pipe connecting with an opening through the spindle of the agitator, and having an opening on an exact line with the index on the outside of the generator. This opening is as near the point of the outer index as the thickness of the fountain will permit, and moves with the outer index as it is turned. It will be at once apparent that in turning the agitator gas will escape from the valve at end of spindle, until the opening on the inside of the fountain reaches the level of the water, when the water must follow, and the index or pointer on the outside of the fountain points directly to the figures that indicate the exact number of gallons in the fountain.
The object of this valve, Fig. 167, is to provide means whereby the pressure of gas in a cylinder used for bottling will automatically regulate itself, by allowing a valve to open for the influx of gas whenever said pressure falls below the desired point, or to reduce the pressure to any desired point, as it passes from the generator through the sentinel, which stands as guard to the fountain or receiver from which water is to be drawn, and checks the advance of all gas above the desired pressure, and allows just what the operator directs the sentinel to let pass his station. If, for instance, a carbonator has a plant consisting of a generator and two cylinders, it may become necessary to fill syphons and bottles at the same time. By attaching this valve to the cylinder from which syphons are filled, the pressure can be maintained at one hundred and fifty pounds, while by another valve attached to the second cylinder, a uniform pressure of sixty or seventy pounds, as desired, is had. These various pressures are steadily maintained so long as the pressure in the generator is sufficient, being controlled automatically, and requiring no care or oversight on the part of the operator.
Fig. 166. - Agitator and Water Gauge.
Fig. 167. - Sentinel Valve.