The ring at bottom of syphon head is cemented to the bottle, so that the top itself may be screwed on or off when a derangement occurs to be remedied.

Formulas for cement for tightening leakages on apparatus we have given in Part III., which apply also to the leakages of syphon heads. Some will also be found in a later chapter of this work.

Should the glass vase be broken, the syphon head is easily replaced on a new one. This is done by the aid of syphon tongs and a vise, in which to hold the syphon head while the tongs unscrews the ring round the neck of the syphon; it is made of iron and soft metal to prevent damage to the syphon top.

Fig. 311.  Syphon Tongs

Fig. 311.- Syphon Tongs.

Fig. 312   Syphon Vise

Fig. 312 - Syphon Vise.

Fig. 313.   Syphon Press

Fig. 313. - Syphon Press.

The annexed cut represents a syphon press, which enables the operator also to take the heads off syphons with ease and rapidity, for cleaning or repairing.

To wash the interior of the syphon head it is not necessary to dismount it. All that is necessary is to unscrew the cap with a small forked wrench, when the interior becomes readily accessible.

The bottler generally repairs his own syphons, and it is therefore advisable to keep on hand an assortment of washers, screws, valves, springs and other accessories.

This drawing shows the method of holding a syphon for cleaning with cloth; the wedges are quickly pushed in or out to hold or release the syphon. The top of the syphon can be made as bright as new silver in a few seconds either by rubbing with ordinary whiting and woolen cloth, or, when very dirty, by revolving brushes.

Polishing rags, with which metallic objects can quickly be polished so as to give them a bright appearance, are made of woolen cloth and saturated with soap and tripoli. The method of preparation is as follows: 1 dram of Marseilles soap is dissolved in 5 drams of water, then 1/2 dram of tripoli is added. Pieces of cloth are saturated with this solution, when they are ready for use, and will brighten up the syphon heads equal to nickel plate. In Part III., under "Maintaining of Apparatus/' we have appended several useful formulas for cleansing pomades, which will answer excellently for cleaning syphon heads.

Fig. 314.   Syphon Cleaning Box

Fig. 314. - Syphon Cleaning Box.

Fig. 315.   Syphon Case

Fig. 315. - Syphon Case.

For cleaning with brushes special ones are designed, which may be fixed into the bottle-washing or brushing machines, the syphon in this case being held in the hands. This is only required when the tops are very dirty. Also special machines with revolving brushes or so-called buffing machines for cleaning and polishing tops of syphons are designed, and are a practical contrivance in large establishments.