This section is from the book "Alcohol, Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, And Industrial Applications", by Charles Simmonds. Also available from Amazon: Alcohol: Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, And Industrial Applications.
The sale of alcohol is a State monopoly in Russia, and denatured alcohol for Government establishments is made less nauseous than that for private firms or individuals. In 1907, the substances and proportions used in "general" denaturing were, for 100 volumes of absolute alcohol: -
(a). State establishments. - 2.5 Vols. of wood spirit, 05 vol. of pyridine bases, and 01 vol. of a solution of violet colour.
(b). Private persons. - Five vols. of wood spirit, 1 vol. of pyridine, and 01 vol. of violet colouring.
Subsequently, the proportion of wood spirit in each of these varieties was reduced to one-half (i.e., to 1.25 per cent. and 2.5 per
Y cent, respectively); but this was understood to be a temporary measure only. An alternative form of general denaturing for private traders' use was also authorised: per 100 vols, of absolute alcohol - 2 vols. of wood spirit, 05 vol. of pyridine bases, 1 vol. of ketone oils, and 01 vol. of violet colouring.
Permission to use spirit duty free is generally limited to one year. and bond must be given.
Special denaturing processes are as follows: -
(1). For varnishes and polishes. - One hundred parts of spirit are mixed with 5 parts of wood naphtha and 1 part of turpentine Or instead of turpentine, resin, shellac, or tar may be used in the proportion of 1/2 lb. to one vedro (27 gallons) of spirit.
(3). For making ether, chloroform, and chloral hydrate. The alcohol is denatured with animal oil.
(4). For preparation of tannin, collodion, and artificial silk. Ten parts of ether are added to 100 parts of alcohol.
(5). Preparation of santonin. - Fresh spirit is mixed with spirit that has already been used, in the proportion of 4 to 1; or 1 poud (36 lb.) of crude santonin is mixed with 10 vedros (27 gallons) of alcohol.
(6). Phenacetin, salol, salipyrine, and salicitine nitro-salts.-Five per cent, of benzene is added to the spirit.
(7). Preparation of aniline dyes. - Five per cent. of wood naphtha. Or, alternatively, the alcohol is denatured with animal oil.
(8). Resinite or Kisylite. - Seven per cent. of ether or acetone.
(9). Smokeless powders. - The spirit is not denatured, but its use is under strict surveillance.
(10). Mercury fulminate. - 0.025 Per cent. of animal oil, together with 5 per cent. of the crude recovered spirit that has been used in the process.
(11). Extraction of sugar from treacle. - Fresh spirit is mixed with spirit that has already been used - equal volumes of each.
(12). For preventing deposits of naphthalene in gas pipes. - Five parts of wood naphtha and 1 part of pyridine bases are mixed with 100 of alcohol.
(13). For street lighting. - Twenty parts of turpentine to 100 parts of alcohol; only allowed to contractors to local authorities.