books



previous page: Beverages And Their Adulteration Origin, Composition, Manufacture, Natural, Artificial, Fermented, Distilled, Alkaloidal And Fruit Juices | by Harvey W. Wiley
  
page up: Books on Drinks and Beverages
  
next page: Fermented Alcoholic Beverages, Malt Liquors, Wine, And Cider | by C. A. Crampton

Alcohol, Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, And Industrial Applications | by Charles Simmonds



In this volume has been collected information which, it is hoped, will be found useful to those persons - a numerous class - who have occasion to employ alcohol scientifically or industrially in their various callings. Widely scattered through scientific and technical literature are many facts and figures concerning alcohol, which in one way or another are of interest and importance not only to the professional chemist, the physicist, or the scientific investigator, but also to the manufacturer, the engineer, the technical student, the industrial research worker, and the user of a motor-car. To many among these it will, doubtless, be a convenience to have the various facts, or the most important of them, brought together and made readily accessible in a single volume such as the one now presented.

TitleAlcohol, Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, And Industrial Applications
AuthorCharles Simmonds
PublisherMacmillan And Co.
Year1919
CopyrightM1919, acmillan And Co.
AmazonAlcohol: Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, And Industrial Applications

Alcohol, Its Production, Properties, Chemistry, And Industrial Applications

With Chapters On Methyl Alcohol, Fusel Oil, And Spirituous Beverages

By Charles Simmonds, B.Sc.

Analyst in the Government Laboratory, London

-Preface
In this volume has been collected information which, it is hoped, will be found useful to those persons - a numerous class - who have occasion to employ alcohol scientifically or industrially in their...
-Table Of Abbreviations Employed In The References
Abbreviated Title. Journal. Allgem. Brau.-Hopf. Zeit. ... Allgemeine Brau- und Hopfen-Zeitung. Amer. Chem. J. .....................
-Chapter I. Introductory
Alcohol. - The word alcohol is derived from the Arabic al-koh'l, denoting native antimony sulphide, which substance, in the form of an impalpable powder, has long been used by Eastern women for da...
-Early History
- Passing from the word to the thing signified, it is safe to say that spirituous drinks have been known from time im-memorial. Fermented liquors, including wine, beer, and mead, were familiar to the ...
-I - Materials Employed
The possible sources from which alcohol can be obtained areh very numerous, since any substance containing either sugar or starch may be used for the purpose. Moreover, not only sugar and starch, but ...
-(A) Materials Containing Starch
Of these, cereals and potatoes are the principal substances used in making alcohol. The chief cereals employed for the purpose are barley, maize, oats, rice, rye, and wheat. Naturally they vary in ...
-2 Chem
Zeit, 1912, 36, 655. 3 Chron. of Pharmacy, 1, 329. Whatever may be the facts as to the earliest mention of distilled alcohol, one thing is clear. The recognition of alcohol as a constituent of a...
-Composition Of Alcohol
As to the question, What is alcohol ? there was more or less speculation during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but it was not till towards the close of the latter period that much was defin...
-Lavoisier's Analysis
It was Lavoisier's analysis of alcohol in 1781, supplemented by de Saussure's analyses (1807-1813), which settled the question of the composition of alcohol. Lavoisier, whose other researches had disp...
-Synthesis Of Alcohol
The first chemical synthesis of alcohol has generally been attributed to Berthelot, who, in 1854, obtained it from ole-fiant gas by absorbing this gas in sulphuric acid, diluting the product, and dist...
-Synthesis Of Alcohol. Continued
The views of the three microscopists, however, were very strongly contested by the most distinguished chemists of the period - Berzelius and von Liebig. Berzelius regarded fermentation as a catalytic ...
-Chapter II. Outline Of The Production Of Alcohol
The ordinary alcohol of commerce (ethyl alcohol) is chiefly obtained by the fermentation of some form of sugar through the action of yeast. The sugar may be already existent in the raw materials emplo...
-(B) Materials Containing Sugar
A considerable quantity of alcohol is obtained by fermenting the juice of sugar-beets. In France, the amount thus produced is about one-third to one half of the total output of alcohol. The better var...
-Cane-Sugar Juice And Palm Sap
In the tropics and sub-tropics cane-sugar juice, as well as the cane molasses, serves as a source of alcohol both for industrial purposes and for making spirituous beverages such as rum and tafia. The...
-Wine; Fruits
In wine-producing countries a large quantity of alcohol is obtained by the distillation of wine, both for the making of brandy and the production of industrial alcohol. Surplus stocks of wine are thus...
-II. - Roots, Tuberous-Roots, And Root-Stocks
Plant. Botanical name. Where found or used. Potato ......... Solanum tuberosum, Linn. Widely distributed. ...
-III. - Grain
Barley .... Hordeum vulgare, Linn. Europe, America, etc. Rye..... Secale cereale, Linn. N. Europe, etc. Ma...
-IV. Stems
Sugar Cane. Saccharum officinarum, Linn. Tropics. Sugar Corn...... Zea Mays, Linn. U.S.A. Sugar Sorghum. ...
-VI. Inflorescences
Palmyra or Black Run Palm. Borassus fiabellifer, Linn. Tropical Africa; India; Burma; Ceylon. Cocoa-nut Palm..... Cocos nucifera, Linn. ...
-(C) Alcohol From Wood
Cellulose, which constitutes about 50 per cent, of wood, can be partially resolved into dextrose and other sugars by treatment with acids under pressure. After neutralisation of the acid, the sugars, ...
-(D) Synthetic Alcohol From Calcium Carbide Or Acetylene
It has now become commercially practicable to prepare alcohol synthetically, as well as by the fermentation methods. The raw material employed is the hydrocarbon gas acetylene, C2H1 - or rather calciu...
-Diastase (Amylase)
The principal diastatic enzyme is the amylase or diastase of malt - that is, of germinated barley. It was the first enzyme to be isolated. Persoz and Payen4 effected the separation so far back as the ...
-Diastase (Amylase). Continued
1 J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1913,35, 1617-1G23. 2 Biochem. Zeitsch., 1917, 80, 211. Cytase (cellulase) is another enzyme found in germinating barley. It attacks the cellulose walls of the cells which enc...
-Reductase
Yeast possesses marked reducing power towards certain substances - e.g., methylene-blue and sodium selenite - and it is considered that this property is due to an enzyme which has been termed reducta...
-Carboxylase
This is the name applied to an enzyme, present in yeast, which has the property of fermenting pyruvic acid.3 The latter substance is an intermediate compound formed during the alcoholic fermentation o...
-Malting
The screened barley is first steeped in water for a period which varies from two to four days, according to the nature of the barley and the temperature of the water. During this steeping it absorbs a...
-Changes Which Occur During Germination
We owe to Brown and Morris the first satisfactory exposition of the principal chemical and morphological changes which go on in the barley grain during the early stages of germination. These investiga...
-Changes Which Occur During Germination. Part 2
Diastase, therefore, is elaborated by the scutellar epithelium during the growth of the embryo. It attacks the starch of the endosperm, and renders it soluble, so that the products can now diffuse thr...
-Changes Which Occur During Germination. Part 3
Twenty-five grams of ground malt are extracted with 500 c.c. of pure distilled water for three hours at 21.1, and filtered. The first 100 c.c. of the filtrate are rejected. Of the perfectly brigh...
-Extract Value
The procedure recommended by the Malt Analysis Committee mentioned above is as follows:l Fifty grams of the ground malt are mashed in a beaker of about 500 c.c. capacity with 360 c.c. of distilled ...
-Yeast
The yeast-plant is a unicellular vegetable organism without chlorophyll, belonging to the genus Saccharomyces (Reess). Since they contain no chlorophyll, the yeasts, like other fungi, cannot obtain th...
-Yeast. Continued
E about 25, or alternatively at the ordinary temperature. In the course of two or three days, or more, according to the temperature, active fermentation will have set in, and after a week or so e...
-Composition Of Yeast
A notable feature of yeast is the large proportion of nitrogenous substances which it contains. The quantity varies a good deal, apparently according to the conditions of nutrition under which the yea...
-Enzymes Of Yeast
It is to these important substances that yeast owes its inverting and fermentative properties. They include sucrase (invertase), zymase, maltase (glucase), lactase, hexosephosphatase, reductase, carbo...
-Enzymes Of Yeast. Continued
The following synopsis shows at a glance how the more common sugars are affected by a number of yeast-species. Fermentation is indicated by the sign +, absence of it by the sign 0: - Ye...
-Moulds (Hyphomycetes, Zygomycetes)
These are fungi forms without chlorophyll, in which sexual reproduction takes place by conjugation, so that the mould are somewhat higher than the yeasts in the vegetable kingdom. The mould spore deve...
-III. - Conversion Of Starch And Sugar Into Alcohol: Mashing And Fermentation. Mashing
The object of mashing is to bring the starchy material into a condition favourable for its conversion into sugar and other products by the enzymes present, and eventually to effect this conversion. ...
-Saccharification
As already indicated, the starch does not itself undergo alcoholic fermentation; it is first converted into maltose and other products by the action of the enzyme diastase (amylase). This diastase is ...
-Sacchariflcation Of Grain Mashes With A Small Proportion Of Malt
A. Vasseux describes the following procedure, which has given good results, and is recommended to distillers who wish to abandon saccharification by acid in order to produce spent grains suitable ...
-Sacchariflcation Without Malt Or Acid
In certain small Continental distilleries spirit is made entirely from raw rye. No malt or acid is used: the starch is saccharified by the diastase present in the raw grain. Thirty kilos, of rye gr...
-Changes During Saccharification
The action of diastase upon starch is one of hydrolysis, whereby the starch is converted into dextrins, maltose, and intermediate products. The changes involved are very complex. Much study has been d...
-Saccharification Of Starch By Acid
It has been mentioned above that the preliminary conversion of maize or rice may be made with acid, as an alternative to using green malt. For this purpose, the ground grain is mixed with three to fou...
-Beets. Sugar-Beets
(Egrot and Grange, Paris). Worts from Sugar-containing Materials. Sugar-Beets In France, the juice of beets for alcohol-making is obtained in a manner quite similar to that adopted in the sug...
-Molasses
In preparing beet molasses for fermentation, it is usual to sterilise them by slightly acidifying the diluted molasses, and boiling the solution. A portion is withdrawn after cooling, partly fermented...
-Fermentation
When the saccharified wort obtained in the manner described has been cooled to about 15-20 and run into the fermenting vessels or wash-backs, it is pitched with yeast to start the fermentati...
-Changes During Fermentation
When yeast acts upon the saccharified starch of the wort, it converts the maltose at first into dextrose: - C12H12O11 + H1O = 2c6h12o6 ...
-Rate Of Fermentation
Slator2 has shown that the rate of fermentation of dextrose by yeast is proportional to the concentration of the yeast, over a wide range of concentration. The rate is almost independent of the concen...
-Autofermentation
It may be mentioned that yeast itself undergoes fermentation. Nearly all samples of yeast contain glycogen, the amount varying according to the age of the yeast. Glycogen is the reserve carbohydrate o...
-Yield Of Alcohol
To obtain a complete conversion of the starch into sugar and alcohol is impracticable. Even under the best conditions the yield of alcohol is, from various causes, appreciably lower than the quantity ...
-Practical Yield of Alcohol From Different Raw Materials
Material. Assumed content of starch or sugar. Gallons of absolute alcohol produced per ton. Percentage of theoretical yield. Cane molass...
-Use Of Bacterial Enzymes
Another interesting application of micro-organisms to the purposes of the distilling industry has been worked out by Boidin and Effront. In the saccharification of starch by means of malt, the malt...
-IV. - Distillation And Rectification
The fermented wash contains as chief volatile constituents alcohol, water, and fusel oil, with small quantities of acetic acid, aldehyde, and esters. Its non-volatile ingredients include solid particl...
-Pot Stills
At the smaller distilleries where malt whiskies are produced, and where it is the object of the distiller to retain in the product some of the esters, higher alcohols, and other bodies which give the ...
-Patent Stills
By far the greater quantity of ordinary alcohol, however, is distilled in highly-effective apparatus which produces a nearly pure silent or neutral spirit of from 94 to 96 per cent, strength in on...
-V. - Conversion Of Cellulosic Substances Into Alcohol
Alcohol from wood, - In obtaining alcohol from sawdust or other waste-wood material, the so-called cellulose of the wood is hydrolysed by treatment with acids under pressure. By this means it is i...
-V. - Conversion Of Cellulosic Substances Into Alcohol. Continued
According to R. von Demuth,4 dilute sulphuric acid has replaced sulphur dioxide as hydrolysing agent in some of the American factories. To obviate destruction of the sugars formed, the process is acce...
-Alcohol From Sulphite-Waste Liquor
Waste sulphite liquor is a by-product of the wood pulp industry, and very large quantities are available in the countries where this industry is carried on. For every ton of cellulose about 10 tons of...
-VI. - Synthetic Alcohol From Acetylene And Calcium Carbide
In the introductory chapter it was pointed out that Hennell, as long ago as 1828, had effected a synthesis of alcohol from ethylene. This gas was dissolved in sulphuric acid, forming ethyl hydrogen su...
-VII - Statistics And Miscellaneous Notes
Materials used in distilleries (United Kingdom). Year ended September 30th, 1913.* Country. Malt. Quarters. Unmalted grain. Quarters. Molasses. Cwts. ...
-Annual Production Of Alcohol
The following table summarises the approximate annual quantities of alcohol produced by the larger countries, with the principal raw materials employed. Average for the five years 1909-1913. ...
-Annual Production Of Alcohol. Continued
4. Increase in technical utilisation of alcohol. - After 1887, there was a constant increase in the consumption of alcohol for technical purposes. It was recognised that the most important field in wh...
-Alcohol From Sulphite Liquor
Bjarne Johnsen,1 who has considered this question from the point of view of Canadian industry, gives some calculations of the cost of manufacturing alcohol from sulphite waste liquor. They rest upon d...
-Chapter III. The General Chemistry Of The Alcohols
For a complete account of the important class of bodies termed alcohols, including the proofs of their chemical constitution, reference must be made to text-books of organic chemistry. It would be b...
-Formulation
The alcohols can be looked upon as derived from methyl alcohol, the simplest member of the series, by replacing hydrogen of the CH3-group with various alkyl groups, thus: - The name carbinol...
-Isomerism In The Alcohols
Whilst only one methyl alcohol is possible, and only one ethyl alcohol, the formulæ show that two propyl alcohols, four butyl, and eight amyl alcohols can exist. In the last three classes, isomerism m...
-Isomerism In The Alcohols. Part 2
Similarly, ethyl alcohol itself can bo transformed into propyl alcohol, and so on. The foregoing series of reactions may be summarised thus: - Whilst the aldehydes, acid chlorides, and an...
-Isomerism In The Alcohols. Part 3
This reacts with aldehydes and ketones to form additive products, which are decomposed on treatment with water, yielding secondary and tertiary alcohols respectively. Thus with acetaldehyde: - ...
-Conversion Of Primary Alcohols Into Secondary And Tertiary Alcohols
On distillation with dehydrating agents, e.g., sulphuric acid or zinc chloride, primary alcohols have the elements of water removed and yield unsaturated hydrocarbons: - CH3.CH1 .CH1.OH...
-Distinction Of Primary, Secondary, And Tertiary Alcohols From One Another
(1) If the alcohols are distilled with phosphorus and iodine, the corresponding iodides are formed: classes of alcohols is afforded by oxidation. Primary when oxidised yield first the corresponding al...
-General Properties Of The Alcohols
Whilst the alcohols, as already stated, are neutral bodies, they have some resemblance to bases on the one hand, and to acids on the other. Thus they react with acids to form esters, or ethereal salts...
-Chapter IV. Methyl Alcohol: Its Production And Properties
Methyl alcohol (Methanol), CH3.OH. Molecular Weight 32 03. - The liquid obtained by distilling wood was shown by Boyle in the Sceptical Chymist, as far back as the seventeenth century, to contain both...
-Occurrence In Nature
Methyl alcohol is found in a large number of plants, chiefly as methyl esters, e.g., methyl salicylate, antnranilate, and cinnamate, which are constituents of various essential oils. Notably, methyl s...
-Production
For commercial purposes methyl alcohol is obtained chiefly from the products of wood which has been submitted to dry distillation, or treated with hot producer-gas. Almost any hard wood may be employe...
-Rectification
In general, we may say that from 100 parts of air-dried wood are obtained by distillation 25 to 27 parts of charcoal, and 45 to 50 parts of pyroligneous liquor, or crude wood vinegar. This last con...
-I. - Density At 15&Deg; Of Mixtures (By Weight) Of Methyl Alcohol And Water
[Calculated from the specific gravity determinations of Doroschewsky and Roschdestvensky at 15/15o.] Per cent. methyl alcohol by weight. D 15/4. ...
-II. - Specific Gravity At 15&Deg;/15&Deg; Of Mixtures (By Volume) Of Methyl Alcohol And Water
[Calculated from the same data as the preceding Table.] methyl alcohol by volume at 15. Per cent. D 15/15. Differences. 0 ...
-III. - Percentages By Volume At 15&Deg;, Corresponding With Various Percentages By Weight In Mixtures Of Methyl Alcohol And Water
Per cent by weight. Per cent. by volume at 15. Differences. 0 0.000 1.253 1 1.253 ...
-Catalytic Decomposition
When methyl alcohol vapour is passed over reduced copper at a temperature of about 200-240, it is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydrogen (Sabatier and Senderens). At higher temperatures, the f...
-Wood Naphtha
(Wood Spirit). - This is crude methyl alcohol, containing water and various impurities, chiefly acetone and esters. The amount of these impurities allowed to remain in the various grades of wood spi...
-Toxic Character Of Methyl Alcohol
A number of observations have been recorded tending to show that methyl alcohol is distinctly more poisonous than its ethyl homologue. This toxic character has been ascribed to the oxidation of the me...
-Chapter V. Ethyl Alcohol: Its Occurrence And Physical Properties
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol), C2H6OH. Mol. wt. 46.05. Occurrence Of Alcohol In Natural Products Ethyl alcohol is present in a number of plants, chiefly combined with organic acids to form the ethyl e...
-II. Temperatures From 0&Deg; To 105&Deg
Temp. Pressure in mm. 0 12.0 5 17.0 10 23.5 15 32.2 ...
-Specific Gravity
Owing to its fiscal as well as to its scientific importance, the Specific gravity of ethyl alcohol has been the subject of numerous investigations. In this country, the value obtained by Fownes,1 name...
-Thermal Expansion And Specific Gravity Of Aqueous Solutions Of Alcohol
The ordinary tables of alcoholic strengths at 15.56 are given in the section on Alcohol-ometry. The following data, due to Osborne, McKelvy, and Bearce,8 allow of the specific gravity of aqueou...
-Contraction
Alcohol is hygroscopic, though not remarkably so. It is miscible with water in all proportions. On mixing the two liquids, a rise in temperature occurs, and on cooling the mixture to the original temp...
-Apparent Specific Volume Of Alcohol In Aqueous Mixtures
Dr. H. T. Brown deduces from the following considerations that with very dilute mixtures of alcohol and water there is an expansion of volume instead of a contraction.3 The apparent specific volume...
-Refraction
The refractive index of ethyl alcohol for the line Hp is 1.3667 (Briihl). Holmes1 has determined the indices of refraction (ND) at 15.5 for various mixtures of alcohol and water, and shows tha...
-Electrolysis Of Alcohol
According to Lob and Lorenz,3 when ethyl alcohol is electrolysed in sulphuric acid solution the final products are aldehyde, acetic ester, formic ester, ethyl sulphuric acid, and ethylidene oxy.ethyl ...
-Solubility Of Alcohol In Water
As already stated, alcohol is miscible with water in all proportions, but Wroth and Reid2 have devised an ingenious method of estimating the ideal solubility, based upon the value of the partition...
-Viscosity Of Ethyl Alcohol And Its Aqueous Mixtures
Ethyl alcohol and its aqueous, solutions form useful standard liquids for testing viscometers, within the range of viscosities obtainable. A mixture of 45 per cent. by volume of ethyl alcohol and wate...
-Azeotropic Mixtures
Alcohol forms azcotropic mixtures with water -i.e., mixtures which distil at a constant temperature, when the pressure is kept constant, without change of composition. At the standard pressure, 760 mm...
-Alcohol As Solvent
Alcohol is one of the most useful of solvents, both for organic and inorganic substances, but especially the former. It dissolves balsams, essential oils, esters, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, resins, so...
-Photolysis Of Alcohol
According to Berthelot and Gaudechon,1 ethyl alcohol in absence of air is not decomposed by sunlight (of wave-length greater than 0.3µ). It is, however, photolysed by the direct rays of a mercury vapo...
-Oxidation Of Alcohol
Speaking broadly, oxidising agents convert ethyl alcohol into aldehyde and acetic acid: - C2H5.OH + O = CH3.CHO + H1O; C2H...
-Electrolytic Oxidation Of Alcohol
P. Askenasy and coadjutors have investigated the conditions necessary for obtaining the best yield of acetic acid when alcohol is oxidised electrolytically.1 No diaphragm was used in the experimental ...
-Ghlorination Of Alcohol
If dry chlorine is passed into strong alcohol to saturation, the mixture being at first cooled and afterwards heated slowly to 100, the alcohol is chlorinated, the final product being a crystalli...
-Fixation Of Nitrogen By Alcohol
Under the influence of the electric spark discharge in an atmosphere of nitrogen for a lengthened period, ethyl alcohol and its homologues combine with nitrogen, yielding bodies of an amido- or basic ...
-Catalytic Decomposition Of Ethyl Alcohol
According to Berthelot,4 ethyl alcohol vapour when heated begins to decompose at 500, yielding on the one hand ethylene and water, and on the other aldehyde and hydrogen; but secondary reactions ...
-Catalytic Dehydration By Means Of Metallic Oxides
Various oxides, such as thoria, alumina, and the blue oxide of tungsten, exert a dehydrating action on ethyl and other alcohols at a temperature of 300-350, the products being ethylene hydrocarbo...
-Absolute Alcohol
In preparing anhydrous alcohol, the usual procedure is to digest 95 per cent. spirit with quicklime for some days, and then to distil off the alcohol slowly from a water-bath and treat the product in ...
-Rectified Spirit
The Spiritus Rectificatus or Alcohol (90 per cent.) of the British Pharmacopoeia is defined as a mixture of ethyl hydroxide and water, containing in 100 parts by volume 90 parts by volume of ethy...
-Chapter VI. The Analytical Chemistry Of Methyl And Ethyl Alcohols
I. Separation of the alcohols from other substances. - Before the alcohol in a mixture can be examined as to its character, or its quantity accurately determined, it must, as a rule, be obtained pract...
-III. Identification Of Methyl Alcohol
The tests for methyl alcohol are principally used for the detection of this substance in ethyl alcohol. Hence their value is dependent first upon the sharpness with which they distinguish between the ...
-Methyl Formate Reaction
Dissolve a little sodium formate in about 2 c.c. of water, add 1 or 2 c.c. of the liquid to be tested, then pour into the mixture an equal volume of strong sulphuric acid. On mixing the contents of th...
-Boric Acid Flame Reaction
Powder some borax finely, and mix it in a porcelain basin with a few c.c. of the alcoholic liquid, which for this test should be free from acid, and strong enough to burn. Allow the mixture to stand f...
-Formic Acid Reaction
The liquid to be tested is mixed with an equal volume of 50 per cent. sulphuric acid, and introduced into a small flask in which has been placed 3 or 4 grams of powdered potassium dichromate and about...
-Conversion Into Formaldehyde
Many of the tests which have been proposed for detecting the presence of methyl alcohol depend upon the oxidation of the alcohol to formaldehyde, and the recogni-ton of the latter by a colour reaction...
-Conversion Into Formaldehyde. Continued
1 Identification of Pure Organic Compounds, Vol. I, p. 160. 2 Amer. Chem. J., 1900, 24, 444. The method of oxidation proposed by Hinkel1 is somewhat less sensitive than the foregoing. About 5 ...
-Procedure
In a round-bottomed, short-necked flask of 300 c.c. capacity place 200 c.c. of a mixture containing, per litre, 90 grams of potassium dichromate and 85 c.c. of sulphuric acid (D = 1.845). Add 10 c.c. ...
-Catalytic Dehydrogenation Of Methyl Alcohol To Formaldehyde
Methyl alcohol passed over heated copper is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydrogen (Sabatier and Senderens). This reaction has been used by Mannich and Geilmann3 for the detection of methyl alcohol...
-IV - Determination Of Methyl Alcohol In The Presence Of Ethyl Alcohol
In the following pages are described methods which can be used for the estimation of methyl alcohol when present in mixture with ethyl alcohol. Certain processes are included here which are essentiall...
-Schiff's Reagent
Dissolve 1 gram of pure fuchsine (rosaniline hydrochloride) in about half a litre of hot water; then add, little by little and shaking well after each addition, 20 c.c. of a saturated aqueous solution...
-Methyl Alcohol
1 Gram per litre, in 10 per cent. ethyl alcohol. The alcoholic mixture, purified by extraction with petroleum ether as already described (p. 170), is diluted with water or mixed with ethyl alcohol,...
-Notes
The quantities of reagents mentioned should be measured accurately, especially in respect of the permanganate solution and the sulphuric acid. Within limits, the former governs the quantity of formald...
-Notes. Continued
1 Chem. Zentr., 1916, i, 530. Method of Thorpe and Holmes.1 - This process is based upon the fact that, under the conditions described, methyl alcohol is completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and w...
-Riche And Bardy's Method
One of the oldest and most trustworthy processes for the detection of methyl alcohol in the presence of ethyl alcohol is that described by Riche and Bardy.1 It is based upon the conversion of the two ...
-Conversion Into Trimethylsulphine Iodide
When we have obtained a mixture of ethyl iodide and methyl iodide from the alcohols by treatment with phosphorus and iodine, the quantity of methyl iodide can be estimated by a method described by G. ...
-Permanganate Method
For the determination of small quantities of methyl and ethyl alcohols in aqueous solution, J. Hetper1 proposes a method based upon two oxidations of the liquid with permanganate. One oxidation is car...
-Other Processes
Various other methods of detecting and estimating methyl alcohol in mixture with ethyl alcohol have been proposed. They are mostly of specialised application, and a brief reference to one or two will ...
-Determination Of Methyl Alcohol In The Blood And In The Body-Tissues
According to Nicloux,1 small quantities of methyl alcohol in blood may be estimated by adding to the blood six or seven times its volume of a saturated solution of picric acid, and distilling the mixt...
-Methyl Alcohol In The Air
Methyl alcohol vapour in air is estimated by Nicloux by passing the air through a series of six or 1 Compt. rend. Soc. Biol, 1910, 73, 59, seven wash-bottles containing water at the ordinary temper...
-VI. Identification Of Ethyl Alcohol
As a rule, the detection of ethyl alcohol presents no difficulty, though occasionally, where minute quantities are being dealt with, or interfering substances are present, a definite proof may demand ...
-Aldehyde Reaction
Mix 5-10 c.c. of the alcoholic liquid with an equal volume of 50 per cent. sulphuric acid, and introduce it into a small flask containing 3 or 4 grams of powdered potassium dichromate and about 5 c.c....
-Conversion Into Dinitrophenetole
A somewhat similar reaction to the foregoing has been used by Blanksma.2 By the action of sodium ethylate on l-chloro-2:4-dinitrobenzene the compound 2: 4-dinitrophenetole is obtained: - C6H3(NO2)2...
-Conversion Into Phthalic Ester
A more general application of the same principle has been described by E. E. Reid.3 Alcohols when heated with phthalic anhydride yield phthalic esters; and the sodium salts of these, heated with pa...
-Specific Reaction For Ethyl Alcohol
The presence of aldehyde or acetone, which are difficult to remove, interferes with some of the ordinary tests for ethyl alcohol. According to A. Toninelli,1 the following reaction is not affected by ...
-Pasteur's Method For Small Quantities
This is of some historical interest, as having been used by Pasteur in showing, for example, that certain torulæ produce no alcohol in the course of their development.1 1 Ann, Chim. anal, 1914, 19,...
-VII. Examination Of Commercial Alcohol
Specimens of plain spirit are frequently required to be tested as regards general purity and suitability for use in pharmacy, perfumery, or other arts. Defects due to imperfect rectification are not...
-VIII. Determination Of Ethyl Alcohol
The ordinary methods of estimating ethyl alcohol when mixed with water only are dealt with in the-chapter on Alcoholometry. In the following pages various special processes are given, including method...
-Estimation By Conversion Into Iodoform
The following method is described by Villedieu and Hebert1 for the estimation of ethyl alcohol in dilute solutions containing 01 to 1 per cent., and is applied to the estimation of alcohol in urine. I...
-Oxidation With Permanganate
When only a small quantity of a very dilute solution of alcohol is available, an accurate estimation may be made by means of alkaline permanganate. In the following process, described by Barendrecht,1...
-Physical Methods Of Estimating Alcohol
Apart from the usual method of estimation by means of the specific gravity and appropriate tables, which is dealt with at length in the chapter on Alcoholometry, there are various other physical pro...
-Ebullioscope
Obviously the foregoing methods will give results of only an approximate character. The following, however, is a tolerably accurate process for estimating alcohol in such articles as wine or beer, and...
-Rapid Estimation
A rapid process for determining the proportion of alcohol in a liquid has been described by D. Sidersky.1 It depends upon the miscibility of ether with strong alcohol. Twenty c.c. of the alcoholic ...
-Solubility-Curve Method
Anhydrous potassium fluoride dehydrates alcohol somewhat more effectively than potassium carbonate, and like the latter, when added in certain proportions it causes an aqueous solution of the alcohol ...
-Estimation Of Traces Of Water In Alcohol
According to Nussbaum,2 a mixture of equal volumes of absolute alcohol and light petroleum is homogeneous when heated slightly, but becomes turbid when cooled. The point at which the turbidity appears...
-Determination Of Alcohol In Chloroform
Small quantities of alcohol are often added to chloroform as a preservative, especially to chloroform intended for pharmaceutical purposes. The British Pharmacopoeia requires 2 per cent. of absolute a...
-Estimation Of Ethyl Alcohol In Mixture With Acetone
Where the proportion is not too small, an approximate determination of the alcohol can be made by converting it into ethyl iodide and measuring the volume of this. The following process can be used fo...
-Detection Of Alcohol (And Aldehyde) In Presence Of Acetone
According to H. Agulhon,1 a reagent prepared by dissolving 0 5 gram 1 Ann. Chim. Anal., 1912, 17, 50. Q of potassium dichromate in 100 c.c. of pure nitric acid, sp. gr. 1.310, gives a blue colou...
-Estimation Of Acetone In Presence Of Ethyl Alcohol
J. Rakshit modifies Messinger's method by substituting lime water or baryta water for caustic potash solution, with the view of diminishing the error due to formation of iodoform from the ethyl alcoho...
-Estimation Of Ethyl Alcohol In Ethyl Ether
When the proportion of alcohol is not too small, the following table, due to Meker,2 maybe used to ascertain the proportion from the density of the mixture. The latter, if not anhydrous, should be deh...
-Estimation Of Small Amounts Of Benzene In Alcohol
The following method is due to Holde and Winterfeld.1 1 Chein. Zeit., 1908, 32, 313; (Abst.) Analyst, 33, 242, Fig. 31.- graph for ether, alcohol, and water mixtures (Perkin). It is base...
-Mixtures Of Ethyl Iodide And Ethyl Alcohol
The boiling points of various mixtures of ethyl iodide and ethyl alcohol have been determined by.S. C. Jana and J. N. S. Gupta.2 At normal pressure, the results were as follows: - P...
-Determination Of Alcohol In The Presence Of Phenol
If alcohol is separated from phenol by distilling a 1 Chem. Zeit., 1910, 34, 1193. 2 J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1914, 36, 115, strongly alkaline solution of the two substances, the distillate will contain...
-Acetone, Alcohol, And Benzene
A method of determining small quantities of acetone, alcohol, and benzene present in air has been described by Elliott and Dalton.2 A measured volume of the air is aspirated through the undermentioned...
-Chapter VII. Alcoholometry
In a broad, general sense, the term alcoholometry signifies the determination of the proportion of alcohol contained in a liquid, whatever the nature of the liquid and whatever the method used. It i...
-Temperature-Corrections
If for any reason the specific gravity of the alcohol is not taken at the standard temperature, it is necessary to include a correction to compensate for the deviation. The correction is greater at hi...
-Alcohol Table. Specific Gravity At 60&Deg;/60&Deg; F
(15.56o/15.56o C.). Specific gravity in air at 60/60 F. Percentage of proof spirit. Percentage of alcohol. By weight. By volu...
-Density (In Grams Per C.c.) Of Mixtures Of Ethyl Alcohol And Water. - Cont
Per cent. alcohol by weight. Temperature. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40...
-Hydrometry
Various rough-and-ready methods for trying the strength of aqua vitae were practised in bygone times. The property of inflammability was early made use of for this purpose. A piece of cloth was mois...
-Proof Spirit
This is, legally, spirit of the strength denoted as proof by Sikes's hydrometer. Another legal definition makes proof spirit 'that which at the temperature of 51 F. weighs exactly J 12/13th parts...
-Proof Spirit. Part 2
Weight of spirits per gallon by Sikes's hydrometer. Ind. Wt. per gallon, lb. Ind. Wt. per gallon, lb. Ind. Wt. per gallon, lb. ...
-Proof Spirit. Part 3
(3). Section one hundred and fourteen of the Spirits Act, 1880 (which relates to the ascertainment by weighing of the quantity of spirits), shall be construed as if for a reference to the Table there...
-Alcoholometry In Foreign Countries
In France, the assessment of spirit duties is made with the centesimal alcoholometer and tables of Gay-Lussac, which date from the year 1824. The range of the alcoholometer (areometer, hydrometer) ext...
-Alcoholometry In Foreign Countries. Continued
Spirit meters, - It may be mentioned that in some countries, though not in the United Kingdom, an Alcohol meter or Spirit meter is used in distilleries for the purpose of registering automatical...
-Alcohol Calculations
(1). To convert percentage of alcohol by volume into percentage by weight. Multiply the volume percent age by the specific gravity of absolute alcohol (0 7936), and divide the product by the specif...
-Approximations
In technical operations of reducing spirits from a higher to a lower strength it is common to disregard the effect of contraction when no great accuracy is required. The calculations are then much sim...
-Refractometric Estimation Of Methyl Alcohol
In a mixture of methyl and ethyl alcohols which is known to be free from other substances except water, the proportions of the two alcohols can be readily ascertained by determining the refractive...
-Chapter VIII. Industrial Alcohol
Alcohol suitable for use as a beverage is heavily taxed in most countries. In so far, however, as it is required for purposes other than internal consumption by human beings, there is probably no coun...
-I. Industrial Alcohol In The United Kingdom
Great Britain was one of the first countries to sanction the employment of denatured alcohol free of duty for industrial uses. The high price of duty-paid spirit was found to he interfering serious...
-(1) Mineralised Methylated Spirit
This consists of a mixture of 9 volumes of ordinary plain 1 Cd. 2472, 1905. spirit and 1 volume of wood naphtha, to which mixture has been added 0375 per cent. of mineral naphtha.1 It con...
-Analysis Of Mineralised Methylated Spirits
This ordinarily resolves itself into a determination of the alcoholic strength, and the estimation of the methyl alcohol, acetone, and mineral naphtha, with an examination as to whether any appreciabl...
-Alcoholic Strength
This is given with sufficient accuracy for most requirements by the hydrometer, or by the specific gravity taken direct with the pyknometer, without distillation or preliminary purification of the sam...
-Example
Sp. gr. of sample 0.8241 = 92.8 per cent. of total alcohol. (a) Ten c.c. diluted to 92.8 c.c. with water give 10 per cent. of total alcohol. (b) Five c.c. of this were next diluted to 100 c.c. with et...
-Acetone
This is determined by Messinger's method as described under Wood naphtha (p. 307), 5 c.c. of the sample being used instead of 0 5, and the calculation modified accordingly. A blank experiment is c...
-Mineral Naphtha
Five c.c. of the spirit are diluted to 50 c.c. with water in a glass cylinder of about 3 cm. internal diameter, and the opalescence produced is compared with that given by a standard mixture under the...
-Unsaturated Compounds
This determination is carried out in the same way as the bromine-decolorisation test for wood naphtha (p. 305). Instead of 50 c.c. of the standard bromide-bromate solution, however, only 5 c.c. are em...
-(2) Industrial Methylated Spirit
This is a mixture of 19 volumes of plain spirit with 1 volume of wood naphtha. It differs, therefore, from the ' mineralised spirit in containing no mineral naphtha, and in having only one-half the...
-Analysis
The analysis of industrial methylated spirit is carried out in the way already described for the mineralised variety-omitting, of course, the parts relating to mineral naphtha. In estimating the methy...
-Analysis. Continued
1 Report, p. 9. Benzene, aniline, bone oil, turpentine, petroleum-ether, and pyridine are among the most frequently used denaturants other than wood naphtha. The general principles upon which th...
-(4) Alcohol Not Denatured
Although, as already remarked, the law in this country permits the use even of pure alcohol duty-free for industrial purposes, yet in practice such use is very limited, so far as ethyl alcohol is conc...
-Immature Spirits
The Immature Spirits (Restriction) Act, 1915, provides that no British or Foreign spirits shall be delivered for home consumption unless they have been warehoused for a period of at least three year...
-(A) Bromine Decolorisation
A standard bromine solution is made by dissolving 12 406 grams of potassium bromide and 3.481 grams of potassium bromate in a litre of recently boiled distilled water. Fifty c.c. of this standard s...
-(B) Methyl-Orange Alkalinity
Twenty-five c.c. of the naphtha are placed in each of two beakers, and titrated with decinormal acid, using in the one case a few drops of litmus solution, and in the other a solution of methyl-orange...
-(C) Estimation Of Methyl Alcohol
Twenty-two grams of coarsely powdered iodine and 5 c.c. of distilled water are placed in a small flask and cooled by immersion in ice-cold water. Then 5 c.c. of the wood spirit (at 60 o.p. strength) a...
-(D) The Acetone Reaction
Twenty-five c.c. of normal sodium hydroxide solution are placed in a flask similar to those used in the bromine test (a). To this is added 05 c.c. of the naphtha. The mixture is well shaken, and allow...
-(E) Estimation Of Esters
Five c.c. of the wood naphtha are run into a silver pressure flask of about 150 c.c. capacity, together with 20 c.c. of recently boiled distilled water and 10 c.c. of normal soda solution; the flask i...
-Boiling Range Of Wood Naphtha
No stipulations as regards this are made in the British regulations, the naphtha being judged by the results of the foregoing tests. But as a guide to makers it is stated that samples which, when frac...
-Bromine Solution
After at least two hours' drying at 100, and cooling in an exsiccator, 2447 grams of KBrO3 and 8.719 grams of KBr of tested purity are dissolved in water, and the solution made up to 1 litre. ...
-Petroleum Ether Or Mineral Oil
For certain special purposes some users of methylated spirit are required to employ spirit which is mixed with 3 per cent. of an approved mineral oil or petroleum ether. For this purpose the oil is re...
-II. Industrial Alcohol In Foreign Countries
Speaking broadly, the conditions under which denatured alcohol is allowed to be used free of duty in foreign countries are generally similar to those imposed in the United Kingdom. There is usually a ...
-Austria-Hungary
The methylated spirit for ordinary use is prepared by adding 5 litres of wood naphtha and 1/2 a litre of pyridine bases to every 100 litres of alcohol. For some years phenol-phthalein was included as ...
-Belgium
Alcohol for lighting and heating purposes is not allowed free of duty. Varnishes appear to be the only products, containing methylated spirits, that can be sold. All the other denatured spirits are fo...
-France
Spirits for industrial and domestic use are freed from the ordinary spirit duty on condition that they are denatured. Denatured alcohol pays a small statistical tax, and also an impost to cover the ex...
-Germany
The use of denatured alcohol free of duty was first allowed in 1879, the system of denaturing being that followed in Great Britain at that time. In 1887, however, different regulations came into force...
-Holland
Two kinds of denatured alcohol are recognised, viz.: - (a). With 7 litres of crude wood spirit; or (6). With 12 litres of colourless wood spirit, per hectolitre of alcohol calculated at 50 ...
-Italy
For general purposes the denaturant employed is a mixture of wood naphtha, pyridine bases, acetone oil, benzene, and colouring matter. Of this mixture, 3 litres are added to 100 litres of alcohol, whi...
-Portugal
For general purposes alcohol is denatured with a mixture of wood naphtha, heavy benzine, and malachite green, in the proportions of 2 litres, 1 litre, and 2 decigrams, respectively, per 100 litres of ...
-Russia
The sale of alcohol is a State monopoly in Russia, and denatured alcohol for Government establishments is made less nauseous than that for private firms or individuals. In 1907, the substances and pro...
-Spain
Alcohol for lighting, heating, or motor power may be denatured with 2 per cent.of wood naphtha containing 30 per cent. of acetone; benzine may be further added in quantity to suit the trader's require...
-Switzerland
The manufacture, importation, and primary sale of alcohol in Switzerland is a monopoly of the Federal Government. Farmers are permitted to distil small quantities of spirit from wine, fruits, etc., gr...
-United States
The use of denatured alcohol duty-free for industrial and general purposes is comparatively recent in the United States. Though the principle had been recognised by Congress many years previously, it ...
-III. Technical Applications Of Industrial Alcohol
Looking at the table given on pp. 313.4, we get an idea of the numerous purposes to which industrial methylated spirit is put in the arts and manufactures. Industrial alcohol, however, is not confi...
-Use Of Alcohol For Burning, Etc
In all the countries the completely denatured form of spirit is mainly employed for burning, either as a motor fuel, or as a source of heat and light in domestic and public usage. This matter is dea...
-Use As Solvent
Alcohol is very largely employed as a solvent. This, in fact, is its function in most of the manufactures indicated by the table above referred to. Where it is so used, the products may be divided int...
-Manufacture Of Ether
A mixture of 5 parts of alcohol (90 to 95 per cent.) and 9 parts of strong sulphuric acid is heated in a still to a temperature of 130-140. Ether is formed, and distils over, together with some w...
-Manufacture Of Ethyl Chloride
A mixture of alcohol (93 per cent.) and concentrated hydrochloric acid, in the proportion of 40 kilos, of the former to 100 kilos, of the latter, is carefully heated in a lead-lined autoclave. When...
-Manufacture Of Ethyl Bromide
For anaesthetic purposes, ethyl bromide may be prepared by distilling a mixture 1 Trans. Chem. Soc, 25, 1874, 641. 2 D.R.-P. 280740, 1913 of sulphuric acid (1 part), strong alcohol (1 part, by weig...
-Manufacture Of Ethyl Iodide
This is usually prepared by the action of iodine on alcohol in the presence of red phosphorus, much as described under ethyl bromide. Various proportions of ingredients have been recommended. Thus W...
-Manufacture Of Chloral
Chloral is trichloroacetalde-hyde, CCl3CHO, and is prepared by saturating ethyl alcohol with dry chlorine. The alcohol should be as nearly anhydrous as can conveniently be obtained - preferably commer...
-Chloral Hydrate
When treated with water, chloral evolves heat and unites with the water to form a crystalline hydrate, CC13CH(0H)2. The quantity of water necessary for this change is added slowly, to avoid too muc...
-Manufacture Of Chloroform
Chloroform is mainly obtained commercially by the action of bleaching powder on alcohol or on acetone. Its technical preparation is described in Chemiker-Zeitung (1886, 10, 338), as follows. The bl...
-Bromoform
This is the bromine analogue of chloroform, and has the formula CHBr3. It finds some restricted application as an anaesthetic, and for other medicinal purposes. Like chloroform, it may be made from ei...
-Manufacture Of Iodoform
At the present day much of the iodoform produced is made by an electrolytic method, as described further on. Formerly, however, it was exclusively prepared by warming a mixture of alcohol, iodine, and...
-Manufacture Of Ethyl Acetate (Acetic Ether)
A general method for obtaining the ethyl esters such as formate, acetate, butyrate, etc., is to distil a mixture of alcohol, a salt of the acid in question, and sulphuric acid. Instead of the salt, th...
-Manufacture Of Ethyl Acetate (Acetic Ether). Continued
The sodium is melted under xylene and cast into cylindrical blocks for convenience of cutting. A cog-wheel mechanism brings the block against a horizontal cutter, which removes a slice of the metal at...
-Ethyl Butyrate, C3h7cooc2h5
To obtain this ester, 2 parts of butyric acid may be mixed with 2 parts of 95 per cent. alcohol, and the mixture warmed to 80 with 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The product is then poured into...
-Manufacture Of Ethyl Nitrite
This product is used to some extent medicinally, two spirituous solutions containing it being described in the British Pharmacopoeia. Chiefly, however, it is employed commercially for use in the prepa...
-Ethyl Nitrate (Nitric Ethyl Ester), C2h5ono2
When alcohol is heated with nitric acid alone, there is a partial oxidation of the alcohol, which causes the formation of nitrous acid and then of ethyl nitrite, instead of nitrate. If, however, the n...
-Methyl And Ethyl Sulphates
The most important of these industrially are the dimethyl sulphate and the salts of monoethyl sulphate. The former is much used as a methylating agent, especially for phenols and for amines of the aro...
-Methyl Hydrogen Sulphate, (Methyl Sulphuric Acid; Monomethyl Sulphate), Ch3hso4
A general method of obtaining methyl and ethyl sulphates is to treat the alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid1 or with chlorosulphonic acid.2 The first method is convenient, but since the reactio...
-Ethyl Hydrogen Sulphate, C2h5hso4 (Monoethyl Sulphate, Ethyl Sulphuric Acid; Sulphovinic Acid)
The alkali or calcium salt of this acid is used for ethylating purposes in the making of phenacetin and other fine chemicals. To obtain the salt, or the sulphovinic acid itself, the following proce...
-Diethyl Sulphate, (C2h5)2so4
This is somewhat more difficult to prepare, and gives a lower yield, than the corresponding dimethyl compound, but may be obtained in a similar manner. Sulphuric anhydride (17.4 kilos.) is run into 10...
-Ethyl Mercaptan (Ethyl Hydrosulphide), C2h5sh
This compound is employed technically in the preparation of the hypnotics sulphonal, trional, and tetronal. To obtain it on a small scale a solution (sp. gr. 13) of potassium hydroxide in water is ...
-Preparation Of Esters By Catalysis
Sabatier and formic acid were esterified by titanium dioxide to the extent of 65 per cent. at 150, the esterification was only 47 per cent. at 120. Mailhe have shown that various esters o...
-Ethylene
On an industrial scale this gas is prepared from alcohol by Ipatiew's catalytic process, for the purpose of making ethane. The alcohol is vaporised, and the vapour passed over amorphous aluminium oxid...
-Synthetic Drugs And Fine Organic Chemicals
Alcohol is not only used as a solvent in the manufacture of these articles: it frequently enters into their composition. An ethyl or a methyl group, as the case may be, is introduced into the mole...
-Mercury Fulminate, Hgc2n2o2
This compound is largely used in the preparation of detonators for explosives. It is made by the interaction of mercury, nitric acid, and alcohol. Somewhat varying proportions of ingredients are gi...
-Dimethylaniline, C6h5n(Ch3)2
The manufacture of this has been described in detail by J. Walter.5 It is obtained for technical purposes by heating 80 kilos. of pure aniline, 78 of methyl alcohol, and 8 of sulphuric acid (66 B...
-Ethylaniline, C6h5nh C2h5
This is produced by heating equimolecular quantities of aniline hydrochloride and ethyl alcohol to 180 in an autoclave, as with the corresponding methyl compound. On cooling, the ethylaniline hyd...
-Manufacture Of Formaldehyde
The principle involved is the oxidation of methyl alcohol vapour mixed with air, by means of heated contact substances. On passing the resulting mixture of vapours through a suitable rectifying appa...
-Acetaldehyde
This oxidation-product of alcohol is employed industrially in the preparation of certain aniline dyestuffs, and also in making paraldehyde, which has some application in medicine. The two chief source...
-Production Of Vinegar From Alcohol
In this country very little alcohol is used for vinegar making. On the Continent, however, a large quantity is employed for the purpose, more than three millions of gallons being used yearly in German...
-Chapter IX. Alcohol As A Source Of Light, Heat, And Motive Power. Alcohol As Illuminant
Tho use of alcohol for lighting purposes dates from the earlier part of the nineteenth century. Its non-luminous flame was rendered luminous by an admixture of terpenes or other hydrocarbons. Turpenti...
-Alcohol As Fuel
In addition to its employment in ordinary spirit lamps, where it is burned directly by means of an ignited wick, alcohol is used as a source of heat in various appliances for warming, cooking, and oth...
-Alcohol As Motive Power
As a source of power, alcohol has been applied in a manner similar to that in which petrol is used for the driving of motor engines. The vapour of the alcohol mixed with a due proportion of air is dra...
-Alcohol As Motive Power. Continued
1 Watson and others, J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1916, 34, 266. A good deal of experimentation with alcohol motors for agricultural work, creameries, pumping plants, and so on, and also for locomotive purp...
-Results From Tests Made On 10 To 15 H.p. Nash And Otto Stationary Engines
Fuel. Compression pressure (lb.).1 Fuel consumed per b.h.p. per hour. Thermal efficiency (per cent.).2 Lb. Gallon. ...
-Alcohol And Agriculture
Hence the question of the use of alcohol as fuel is becoming a very important one, and will be more so in the future. From the agricultural point of view, it has been urged that the alcohol equivalent...
-Calorific Value
It is a well-established fact that when the same weight of the same substance burns to form the same products of combustion, the quantity of heat evolved is a constant, the value of which is independe...
-Thermal Units
To express the foregoing results in terms of British thermal units (B.Th.U.) they are multiplied by 1.8. Thus for ethyl alcohol: - 7,237 8 gram-calories X 18 = 13,028 B.Th.U. The factor 1.8 is = 9/...
-Calorific Value Of Methylated Spirit
The alcohol used for burning purposes in the United Kingdom is mineralised methylated spirit, which, at a strength of 62 over proof,1 may be taken as containing on an average: - ...
-Calorific Value Of Carburetted Alcohol
By way of example we may take a mixture of mineralised methylated spirit and benzene - containing, say, 20 per cent. of the latter, by weight. Then 1 gram of the mixture contains 08 gram of the minera...
-Chapter X. The Higher Homologues Of Ethyl Alcohol (Propyl, Butyl, And Amyl Alcohols): Fusel Oil
Propyl alcohols (propanols), C3H7 OH. Mol. wt. 6006. As already explained (p. 115), two isomeric propyl alcohols are possible, and are known. (1) Normal Propyl Alcohol, Ch3ch1ch1oh Chancel1 in 1...
-(2) Isopropyl Alcohol, Ch3ch(Oh) Ch3 (Secondary Propyl Alcohol, Dimethyl Carbinol)
This alcohol does not appear to occur in fusel oil, or not in appreciable quantity. It was first obtained by Berthelot in 1855 from propylene and sulphuric acid, and somewhat later (1862) Friedel prep...
-(2) Secondary Butyl Alcohol (Methyl-Ethyl Carbinol; 2-Butanol), Ch3(C2h5)Choh
This alcohol may be obtained by the action cf anltydrous aldehyde on zinc ethyl, as explained in the general methods for preparing secondary alcohols (p. 120). Alternatively, normal butyl alcohol may ...
-(3) Isobutyl Alcohol (Isopropyl Carbinol, Methyl 2-Propanol-L), (Cii3)2chch1oh
This is found in fusel oil, especially in that from potato-spirit, and is separated by fractional distillation. It may be obtained pure by first preparing the iodide from the separated alcohol, since ...
-(4) Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (Trimethyl Carbinol; Dimethyl Ethanol), (Ch3)3coh
Butlerow1 first prepared this alcohol, using the reaction between zinc methyl and carbonyl or acetyl chloride described in Chapter III (The General Chemistry Of The Alcohols). A simpler method, also d...
-Fusel Oil
This is a complex mixture produced to the extent of a few tenths per cent. in ordinary alcoholic fermentation. Thus from four patent-still distilleries the following quantities of fusel oil were produ...
-Synthetic Fusel Oil
It is of interest to note that proposals for the manufacture of synthetic fusel oil have been put forward. In one method gasoline is chlorinated, and the resulting chlorinated hydrocarbons heated with...
-Composition
Fusel oil is of variable composition, depending upon the nature of the materials fermented, probably also on the kind of yeast, and on the method of distillation. Whilst the oil from grain spirit or p...
-Evaluation Of Fusel Oil
Ordinary fusel oil is of value chiefly on account of the amyl alcohol which it contains, and it is, or should be, appraised commercially on this basis. An approximate method of estimating the amyl ...
-Estimation Of Ethyl Alcohol In Fusel Oil
This is of some importance, since fusel oil containing not more than 15 per cent. of proof spirit is allowed to be imported into this country free of duty. As a complement to this, such fusel oil ...
-II. Distillation And Re-Extraction
(6) The liquid in the distilling flask (450 c.c. of spirituous salt solution) is now distilled until about 70 c.c. of distillate are collected. This is saturated with salt and again extracted with ...
-III. Refractometer Correction
The refraction reading of the distillate is taken with the Zeiss immersion refractometer. This reading will be somewhat higher than that of dilute ethyl alcohol of the same specific gravity (see table...
-Chapter XI. Spirituous Beverages. I - The Chemical Examination Of Potable Spirits
What is usually referred to as the alcohol of ordinary potable spirits does not consist merely of pure ethyl alcohol. Small quant ties of associated by-products, especially higher alcohols, esters, ...
-Total Acidity
Fifty c.c. of the sample are titrated with decinormal soda or baryta, using phenolphthalein solution as indicator. Fixed Acidity Another portion of 50 c.c. is evaporated in a beaker to near dryn...
-Total Solids And Ash
One hundred c.c. of the sample, or the residue left in the distilling flask from the distillation experiment mentioned below, are evaporated to dryness in a tared capsule, dried in a steam oven at 100...
-Volatile Acid
Fifty c.c. of the distillate are titrated with decinormal soda solution, using one drop of phenolphthalein solution as indicator. The acid is calculated as acetic (c.c. N /10 soda used x 0006 X 2 = ac...
-Esters
The 50 c.c. of neutralised distillate from the acidity determination are transferred to a screw-stoppered silver pressure flask, a few c.c. of cold, recently-boiled distilled water being used for rins...
-Furfural
A standard solution is made up containing 1 gram of colourless furfural in 100 c.c. of pure spirit of 50 per cent. strength, and from this, other standard solutions are prepared containing 01, 0 01, a...
-Aldehydes
For estimating the aldehydes, a standard solution of aldehyde in 50 per cent. alcohol, containing 0 01 gram of aldehyde per 100 c.c, is required; this is prepared as described later on. Ten c.c. of...
-Standard Aldehyde Solution
This is prepared from purified aldehyde-ammonia, CH3CH(OH)NH1. The recrystallised substance is ground in a mortar with dehydrated ether several times, the ether being decanted off after each grinding;...
-The Estimation Of Higher Alcohols In Spirits
The methods used fall chiefly into three main classes. In one class the alcohols are not separated from the spirit, but are estimated by means of the colour produced through the action of strong su...
-Allen-Marquardt Method
The principle underlying this process is the extraction of the higher alcohols with carbon tetrachloride, and their oxidation to the corresponding acids, which are then estimated by titration. The ori...
-Beckmann's Method
As modified in 1905 from an earlier description, which had been found unsatisfactory by various observers,2 this process is as follows.3 The spirit, after distillation to free it from any colouring...
-Government Laboratory Method
One gram of a standard mixture of higher alcohols (see below) is dissolved in 100 c.c. of pure 50 per cent. alcohol, and from this a standard solution is prepared containing 01 gram of the higher alco...
-Girard And Cuniasse's Method
Aldehydes and furfural are first eliminated from the spirit to be tested, as they are not without effect upon the colour produced with sulphuric acid by the higher alcohols. For this purpose, 50 c....
-The Rose Process
This method is not used in this country, but is official in France, particularly as a sorting.out procedure preliminary to the application of the longer and more exacting Bardy method, described later...
-Komarowsky - Fellenberg Method
As a means of detecting isoamyl alcohol in spirits, A. Komarowsky in 1903 proposed treatment of the sample with salicylic aldehyde and sulphuric acid.1 When to 10 c.c. of the spirit are added 25 to 30...
-General Remarks Upon The Determination Of Higher Alcohols
None of the methods for estimating higher alcohols gives results which are strictly and scientifically accurate. That is to say, none determines the exact quantity of each separate alcohol - or even o...
-II. - Brandy
Brandy ' is a potable spirit distilled from fermented grape juice. British brandy is a compounded spirit prepared by a rectifier or compounder by re-distilling duty-paid spirits, made from grai...
-II. - Brandy. Continued
It is in every way better, in drawing conclusions from the results of analysis, to consider, not the proportion of esters alone, but the whole of the secondary constituents, and especially the highe...
-II. Eaux-De-Vie De Vin Of Known Origin
Cozes. Gemozac. Gemozac. Champagne. 15 to 20 years. 1874. 1893. 1896. Density at 15&...
-III. Cognacs Of Normal Composition
Density at 15 .............. 0.9351 0.9585 0.9415 0.8440 0.8468 Alcohol, by vol.............. 51.5...
-IV. Commercial Cognacs, Deemed To Be Mixtures Of Alcohol Derived From Wine With "Industrial" Alcohol (" Silent " Spirit)
Density at 15 ............... 0.9372 0.9433 0.9372 0.9396 0.9596 Alcohol, by vol.............. 50....
-III - Gin
Gin is a potable spirit flavoured with the volatile products of juniper berries, and often with those of other aromatic herbs as well. It may be either sweetened or unsweetened. The spirit employed is...
-IV. Rum
This beverage has been defined as a spirit distilled direct from sugar-cane products in sugar-cane growing countries, and the Royal Commission on Whisky, etc., considered that this definition ...
-Jamaica Rum
In Jamaica, the materials used in the wash are (1) molasses; (2) skimmings which accumulate during the purification of the sugar, and are allowed to sour during storage; and (3) dunder, viz., the ...
-Demerara Rum
In British Guiana, the wash used for the making of Demerara rum is prepared by diluting molasses with water to a specific gravity of about 1.060. It is rendered slightly acid by the addition of a litt...
-V. - Whisky
Some years ago there was much discussion of the question, What is whisky ? and a good deal of evidence was taken on the point before a Royal Commission, which issued its. report in the year 1909.1 ...
-Materials
Coming to more recent times, there are excise records from the year 1827 onwards, which show that in Scotland, in the years 1827.9, when pot-stills alone were used, the quantity of spirits made from m...
-Maturing
The flavour of newly-distilled whisky is crude and unpleasant. This is particularly the case with pot-still whisky, which contains more of the secondary constituents than the patent. still product. By...
-Blending1
By this term is meant the mixing of two or more different whiskies. These may be all pot-still products, but more generally are mixtures of patent. and pot-still spirits. In the first case, the. objec...
-Constituents
The primary constituent of whisky is ethyl alcohol, but the characteristic flavour is due to small quantities of by-products or secondary constituents produced during the processes of malting, ferme...
-Method
To 200 c.c. of the whisky, 02 gram of tartaric acid was added, and the whole evaporated to a small bulk. The residue was transferred to a small flask, made alkaline with caustic alkali, and then disti...
-Total Acid
Minimum 00012 gram per 100 c.c. in No. 1 (calculated as acetic acid); maximum 0 0360 in No. 7. The acid is chiefly volatile acid. Spirits from pot-still distilleries. District. ...
-I
Distilled in pot-stills. Type. Esters. Furfural. Higher alcohols. Highland malts..................... 58.3 3.4 ...
-II. - Distilled In Other Stills
Highland malts..................... 67 2.1 179 Lowland ,, ..................... 46.7 1.4 189 ...
-III. - Distilled In Patent-Stills
Grains...... 26 009 45.4 The higher alcohols were estimated by a slightly modified form of the Allen-Marquardt method. 1 Sir T. E. Thorpe, Appendix Q, Report of Royal Commission. 2 Establish...
-Changes In Whisky During Storage
The most extensive examination of the changes which whisky undergoes during storage in casks is due to Crampton and Tolman, who carried out a series of experiments upon American whiskies over a period...
-VI - Liqueurs, Cordials, And Compounded Spirits. Liqueurs And Cordials
There is no essential difference between liqueurs and cordials, but as a rule the name liqueur is applied to foreign products, whilst the British preparations are generally termed cordials. Typ...
-Liqueurs, Cordials, And Compounded Spirits. Part 2
The following analyses, here slightly abbreviated, of liqueurs are given in Konig's work; but it should be borne in mind that liqueurs called by the same name are not always made from the same formula...
-Liqueurs, Cordials, And Compounded Spirits. Part 3
British compounds are defined in sec. 3 of the Spirits Act, 1880, as spirits redistilled or which have had any flavour communicated thereto, or ingredient or material mixed therewith. For certa...
-XI. Spirituous Beverages
The above method is inapplicable when the proportion of essential oil is very small, as in flavoured beverages and some medicines. In such cases, it is often practicable to make an approximate determi...
-VII. - Beer
In general terms, beer is a beverage which has been brewed, fermented, and bittered. Formerly, and typically, beer was brewed from malt, and bittered with hops ; but sugars and starchy substances othe...
-VII. - Beer. Continued
The first original gravity tables were constructed in the year 1847 by Messrs. Dobson and Phillips, of the Inland Revenue Department. They were drawn up with considerable care; but some discussion h...
-Refractometrie Analysis Of Beer
The percentage of alcohol and of extract in beer can be obtained, and the original gravity deduced, if the specific gravity and the refractive index are known. H. Tornoe elaborated the method at the i...
-Estimation Of Carbon Dioxide
The proportion of this constituent does not vary much in palatable beer, ranging from about 025 to 04 per cent. The taste alone is a good guide, as beer with less than 02 per cent. of carbon dioxide t...
-Dextrins
A quantity of extract equal to 10 c.c. of the original beer may be taken, and the dextrin hydrolysed by boiling for four hours with 40 c.c. of normal sulphuric acid. After neutralising the acidity, th...
-Mineral Constituents
The total ash may be determined on 25 c.c. of the beer, first evaporating and charring the solids over a low flame, then extracting the alkali salts with water, filtering, and completing the ignition ...
-Herb Beer, Botanic Beer
These are beverages containing usually but a small proportion of alcohol. They are often regarded as non.alcoholic, though this is not strictly the case. Occasionally, indeed, samples are met with c...
-VIIL - Cider And Perry
Cider is obtained by the fermentation of the juice of fresh apples. According to the definition adopted by the International Congress for the repression of food adulteration (Geneva, 1908 and 1909) a ...
-Pectins
Evaporate 100 c.c. of the cider down to about 10 c.c, and add 60 c.c. of alcohol (90 per cent.) to precipitate the pectic matters. Allow the latter to settle, decant off the liquid, redissolve the pre...
-Tannins
The apple.tannin reaction is sometimes employed to distinguish between cider and factitious liquids containing no apple juice. About 10 c.c. of the liquid are extracted with an equal volume of ethyl...
-IX. - Wines
Wine, in general terms, is the beverage produced by the fermentation of fresh grapes, or of the juice of fresh grapes. Certain additions are well recognised - e.g., the fortification of some wines ...
-Analyses Of Various French Wines (Gayon And Laborde)
Kind Alcohol, per cent. by volume Extract at 100. Reducing sugar. Acidity. Tartaric acid. Sulphates, as K2SO4. ...
-Sugar
The estimation of the total sugar is useful in distinguishing between sweet and dry wines, and also in the calculation of the amount of wine extract other than sugar. Further, the separate estimatio...
-Acids
The estimation of the tartaric acid is of value, because this is the characteristic acid of wine, and is not present in some fruit juices which might be used as adulterants - e.g., apple. and pear. ju...
-Polarisation
This datum may often give useful information. If the wine is dextrorotatory, cane-sugar is present, or added glucose, or both. If after inversion the wine becomes lævorotatory, cane-sugar is indicated...
-Alcohol, Acid, And Extract Ratios
In France the relations between alcohol, acid, and extract have been much studied, with the view of detecting such falsifications of wine as the addition of water or alcohol. Certain numerical values ...
-Thus Halohen's Ratio
R = fixed acid + 0.7 per cent. of alcohol by vol.' Example: - Alcohol 1275 per cent. by volume; fixed acid 205 grams per litre calcu...
-Methods Of Expressing The Results Of Analysis
In this country, the alcohol is generally expressed in terms of proof spirit for trade purposes, or as percentage by volume for general use. The other constituents are most conveniently given in grams...
-Volatile Acidity
Fifty c.c. of the wine, contained in a flask of about 200 c.c. capacity, are distilled in a current of steam, The operation is so arranged as to allow the volume of the wine to be rapidly reduced t...
-Fixed Acidity
This is given by the difference between the total acidity and the volatile acidity, care being taken to express the latter for this purpose in terms of tartaric acid. Example: - Total acidity .... ...
-Tartaric Acid
This is the most important of the fixed acids in wine. It is present partly as the free acid and partly as cream of tartar, with a small quantity of calcium tartrate. The total amount may be determine...
-Free Tartaric Acid
This is equal to the difference between the total tartaric acid and the cream of tartar, expressed as tartaric acid. Alternatively, the German official process may be used. In this, the total tarta...
-Citric Acid
Deniges's process, official in France, is as follows: Ten c.c. of the wine are shaken with about 1 gram of lead dioxide, then mixed with 2 c.c. of a solution of mercurous sulphate (5 grams of HgO, 20 ...
-Malic And Succinic Acids
The following method, due to Mestrezat, is described by Gayon and Laborde.1 Two hundred c.c. of the wine are neutralised with solution of barium hydroxide, then very slightly acidified with three o...
-Lactic Acid
This acid is regarded as a normal constituent of most wines, and especially of old wines. The following method of estimating it, due to Mslinger,1 depends upon the fact that barium lactate is so...
-Glycerol
Though rather lengthy, the German official method of estimating the glycerol in wine is the one which, on the whole, appears best to use. The procedure varies somewhat, according as the wine is rich o...
-Preparation Of The Sample
Deduct 2 from the extract percentage; the remainder is approximately the percentage of sugar. If this is not greater than 1, the wine is taken without dilution for the further operations. If greater t...
-Sulphates
Beyond the sulphates normally present, the quantity may be increased through the oxidation of sulphites added for preservative purposes, and by sulphate used for plastering. Up to a maximum of 2 gra...
-Phosphates
About 1 gram of oxidising mixture (1 part KNO3 and 3 parts Na2CO3) is added to 50 c.c. of the wine in a platinum capsule, the mixture evaporated to dryness, and the residue incinerated. In the resulti...
-Sulphurous Acid
This acid may exist in wine, not merely as dissolved sulphur dioxide, but also in combination with various constituents - e.g., aldehydes, sugars, colouring matters, and tannins. Hence the direct dete...
-Salicylic Acid
It is often sufficient for qualitative purposes merely to add a drop or two of dilute, neutral solution of ferric chloride to a little of the distillate obtained from wine and contained in a porcelain...
-Saccharin
For the detection of saccharin in wine and other beverages, two tests are generally relied upon - (1) the characteristic sweet taste of the substance, obtained as an ether extract from the wine, and (...
-Dulcin
In order to detect this artificial sweetening substance, 500 c.c. of the wine are mixed with 25 grams of lead carbonate and evaporated on the water-bath to a pasty consistency. This is extracted repea...
-Tannin
An approximate evaluation of the tannin, of the nature of a rough preliminary estimation, is given by the following German process. Take 100 c.c. of the wine, expel the carbon dioxide, and neutrali...
-Artificial Colouring Matters
The French official tests for the presence or absence of foreign colours in wine are as follows: - (A) Fifty c.c. of the wine are made slightly alkaline with ammonia, and shaken with about 15 c....
-Detection Of Cider In Wine
According to Medinger and Michel,1 when 15 c.c. of wine are shaken with a few c.c. of concentrated solution of sodium nitrite, a bright yellow or yellowish-brown coloration is obtained if the wine is ...
-United Kingdom. Quantities Of Wine "Cleared" For Consumption In The Year 1913-14
Country from which consigned. Quantity. Gallons. Portugal........................................................... 3,287,128 F...
-X. - British Wines
These are usually made by fermenting solutions of sugar with which various ingredients are mixed in order to impart the particular flavour or character required. The principal kinds are Ginger, Orange...
-XI. - Medicated Wines
These are wines containing medicinal drugs, and are typically represented by the six medicated wines of the British Pharmacopoeia, namely, Antimonial Wine, Colchicum Wine, Iron Wine, Wine of Iron Citr...
-Quinine Wine
For determination of quinine alkaloids, 50 c.c. are taken - conveniently in a 100 c.c. cylinder fitted with a blow-off arrangement similar to that of an ordinary wash-bottle. The wine is made alkaline...
-Ipecacuanha Wine
One hundred c.c. of the wine are taken, evaporated to about 50 c.c. to remove the alcohol, and transferred to a separator. The liquid is first made slightly acid with dilute sulphuric acid and extract...
-XII. Non-Alcoholic Wines
A considerable number of beverages are sold under this designation. Some contain grape juice, unfermented, but the majority are solutions of sugar, coloured and flavoured to imitate more or less close...
-XIII. - Miscellaneous Alcoholic Beverages. Bartzsch
Infusions of the leaf-stalks of the hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium), fermented with yeast, have been used as spirituous drinks from time immemorial in North America, Northern Asia, Persia, Russia, ...
-Chapter XII. The Physiological Effects Of Alcohol
Numerous experiments have been made with a view to elucidate the physiological effects of alcohol. As regards the human subject, however, inherent difficulties of strict experimentation, and perhaps s...
-Absorption Of Alcohol Into The Blood
Alcohol when imbibed is quickly absorbed into the circulatory system. About one-fifth of the quantity taken passes into the blood from the stomach, and one-tenth from the uppermost section of the smal...
-Excretion
A small proportion of the imbibed alcohol is excreted unchanged, mainly through the lungs and in the urine. The actual quantity thus lost is variable. Any influence which hastens absorption into the b...
-Oxidation
Except for the small proportion excreted unchanged, alcohol taken into the body is oxidised therein as completely as the carbohydrates are. Definite proof of this has been obtained by analysing the ai...
-Concentration In The Blood
During the first few hours after it is imbibed, alcohol passes into the blood more rapidly than it is oxidised. The concentration therefore rises, reaches a maximum value, and usually remains at about...
-Lethal Dose
According to Dr. A. W. Blyth,3 quantities of one or two ounces of absolute alcohol given in the form of brandy, gin, etc., would be a highly dangerous and probably fatal dose for a child below ten or ...
-Quantity Producing Intoxication
Alcohol gets to the central nervous system by passing from the blood into the cerebro-spinal fluid, and the amount which enters this fluid is strictly proportional to the amount in the blood. From exp...
-Chronic Alcoholism
There is an important distinction between the effects of a single excessive dose of alcohol, and those produced by immoderate quantities frequently repeated, even though these quantities may be, and u...
-Mental Disorders
Some affection of mind is usually present in chronic alcoholism. Commonly it is moderate in degree, and may be shown only in weakened will-power and failure of memory. In delirium tremens, more intens...
-Morbid Changes In Nervous System
These are very variable in character and degree. Most commonly there is some thickening of the membranes, with wasting of the nervous tissues, notably in those parts of the brain which are supposed to...
-Disorders Of The Digestive System
Chronic gastritis is met with in heavy drinkers, especially those who take large quantities of spirits. It precedes, and is in great measure responsible for, the.disease of the liver known as cirrhos...
-Effects On The Kidney And Heart
Changes of a similar type may be brought about in the kidney by the action of imbibed alcohol in immoderate and continued quantities. There is a similar sequence of cellular changes - cloudy swelling ...
-Lessened Resistance To Infection
Chronic alcohol poisoning, by devitalising the tissues, weakens the power of the body to ward off microbial attacks. Alcohol affects the structure of the red corpuscles of the blood, and diminishes th...
-Action On The Reproductive Cells
Berthelot and Weichsel baum have shown independently that in the majority of male alcoholic patients dying in the prime of life there is atrophy of the testicles and absence or scanty production of sp...
-Effects Of Single Doses
Such, then, are the main physiological effects of alcohol taken in sufficient quantity and with sufficient frequency to cause chronic alcoholism. Let us turn now to the effects produced when these con...
-Mental Effects
On the brain and nervous system alcohol acts as a narcotic. If a dose is taken sufficiently large to produce intoxication, then, although the successive phases of inebriation cannot be sharply disting...
-Experimental Investigations
A short outline may here be given of some of the researches undertaken during recent years on the mental effects of alcohol, taken for the most part in small or moderate doses. It will serve to exempl...
-Action On The Neuro-Muscular System
Experiments have been made in order to test the action of alcohol on the muscles themselves, separated from the nervous system.1 With doses ranging up to the equivalent of about 70 c.c. for man, admin...
-Effects On The Digestion
Respecting the effect of alcohol on the process of digestion a good deal has been written, both as to the favourable and the detrimental results produced; but the consensus of modern opinion seems to ...
-Action On The Respiration
Alcohol has long been held in repute as a respiratory stimulant. Many observers have noted a small increase in the activity of the lungs following upon the administration of a moderate dose of alcohol...
-Effect On The Circulation
It has been very generally supposed that alcohol acts as a stimulant upon the heart, increasing the frequency and power of its beat. The matter has been much debated, and many experiments have been ma...
-Effect On The Body Temperature
It has just been noted that alcohol produces a relaxation or dilatation of the bloodvessels which ramify through the skin. The dilatation is due to the alcohol causing a slight paralysis of the nerves...
-Use Of Alcohol In Treatment Of Fevers
Alcohol has long been regarded as a valuable remedy in typhoid and other fevers, partly by reason of its cooling effect, but perhaps still more because it is capable of serving in some degree as a foo...
-Use As Antiseptic
Alcohol at a strength of about 10 per cent. and upwards acts as a preservative of many organic substances. and is often added to medicinal preparations, extracts, wines, etc., to prevent putrefactive ...
-Bibliography
Enzymes and Fermentation. Baylis, W. M., The Nature of Enzyme Action. London (Longmans), 1908. Beatty, J., The Method of Enzyme Action. London (Churchill), 1917. Boulard, H., Etudes et r...
-Addendum. Alcohol As Motor Fuel
An inter-departmental Committee was appointed in October, 1918, to consider questions relating to the supply of alcohol, its manufacture, cost, method of denaturing, and suitability for use in interna...







TOP
previous page: Beverages And Their Adulteration Origin, Composition, Manufacture, Natural, Artificial, Fermented, Distilled, Alkaloidal And Fruit Juices | by Harvey W. Wiley
  
page up: Books on Drinks and Beverages
  
next page: Fermented Alcoholic Beverages, Malt Liquors, Wine, And Cider | by C. A. Crampton