Some of the internal organs of the animals and fowl are used for food. Most of them are comparatively cheap, and may be made palatable.

The liver and kidneys are organs having to do with the waste products of the body and objection is raised to their use on that account. If used, they should be soaked in cold salted water, put into fresh cold water, and allowed to heat very slowly. This water should be poured off, and then a brown stew can be made. What flavors are pleasant with liver and kidneys?

Make your own recipe for liver or kidney stew.

The heart does not contain waste products. Why is it tough? What process would you select to make it tender? Even when softened, it would not be attractive or very palatable without further treatment. It is hollow, somewhat as the chicken is before roasting. Look over the recipes and flavors suitable to meat and see if you cannot make your own for Baked Heart.

Sweetbreads, the pancreas, are highly prized on account of their delicacy, and are costly. They may be broiled, or served in sauce in pastry cases or in patties.

Calf's head and brain.. - The brain is sometimes used as substitute for sweetbreads. From the meat and bones of the head soup and stew may be made.

Exercises

1. From what animals are meats derived?

2. What are the chief values of meat ?

3. Why should its use be limited ?

4. What actual dangers may arise from its use ?

5. What precautions must be exercised by the government inspector and the housekeeper?

6. We are told that chicken pie should have the crust pricked or lifted when it comes from the oven. Is this reasonable ?

7. How may you judge good meats in the market ?

8. Why is the neck of beef tough? . For what would you use it?

9. Why is porterhouse steak tender? Why is it not used in a stew? (It would make a delicious stew.)

10. What cuts would you select for stewing and braising?

11. Make a list of the cuts of beef and mutton and lamb, pork, etc., in your notebook, with the best methods of cookery for each.

12. Add to this list the current prices of each in your locality.

13. What is the size and cost of a 100-Calorie portion of beef round ?

14. With this in mind, calculate how much round steak you would buy for dinner for five people. How much porterhouse?

15. Explain the structure of the muscle.

16. What takes place when meat is seared? When is this process used?

17. Explain the principle of soup making. Devise an experiment to show the effect of salt upon the pieces of meat. What is the nutritive value of soup meat?

18. Explain the principle of stewing meats.

19. What is the difference between broiling and pan broiling?

20. What are some of the best ways of utilizing left over meat and poultry ?

21. Which is more economical, croquettes or an escalloped dish? Explain fully.

22. How may you distinguish poultry in good condition from that too long in cold storage?

23. Why is good poultry not a cheap food ?

24. Discuss making soup versus buying canned soup.

25. What are the advantages of canned meat? The possible disadvantages ?