The following recipes were furnished by Miss Anna Barrows, teacher of cookery, Columbia University, author of Principles of Cookery, or adapted by the editor from the various standard recipes used in cooking schools:

Water. Extracting Flavor.

Tea

Heat an earthenware teapot with hot water. Empty it and put in one teaspoon of tea for each measuring cup of fresh boiling water. Let it stand in a warm place two or three minutes. Strain and serve at once. If the tea boils or stands too long with the leaves it is unfit to drink.

Coffee

Use one-fourth cup of coffee for one pint of water. Place fine ground coffee in strainer in the coffee pot; add actually boiling water slowly, a spoonful or two at a time. Cover between additions Pour through a second time if desired stronger.

Or: Mix one-fourth cap coffee and one teaspoon beaten egg with a little cold water, add the remainder of one pint of water boiling hot. Let it boil up, pour from the spout and turn back into the pot and leave for ten minutes where it will keep hot but not boil.

Stock

Stock is the basis for all soups, except milk or cream soups, to which it is sometimes added. From a pint to a quart of cold salted water is used to each pound of meat and bone, both of which should be in small pieces. Let stand one hour, heat slowly and simmer gently for four hours or more, strain and cool quickly. Remove the hardened fat before using. About a cup of mixed vegetables - carrot, onion, parsley, celery, etc. - may be added during the last hour. Mixed herbs and spices, as bay-leaf, blade of mace, two or three cloves and pepper corns, may be tied in cheese cloth and removed from the liquor when sufficient flavor has been extracted.

Bouillon

Bouillion is usually made from beef with little bone and no vegetables. Brown Stock - some of the meat and a part of the vegetables browned in hot fat or marrow. White Stock - made from chicken, veal, or fish; no flavoring which gives color added. Macaroni, Vermicelli, Noodle, Rice, Barley Soup and the like - cook about one-fourth cup of dry material until tender and add a quart of hot stock, or use cooked left-overs. Julienne Soup - one-half cup mixed cooked vegetables cut in cubes, strips or fancy shapes, to one quart of stock.