With good fastenings, the casement does not rattle. There is much to be said in favour of its appearance also, both from within and without.

All casements should have grooved seatings to prevent rain driving in.

There is one further advantage in the casement. It cannot be opened as easily from the outside as the sash window, and on that account it is more secure from the house-breaker, a consideration with persons of nervous temperament. Windows should be large. A minimum size is one-tenth of the floor area, and at least one half of this must be made to open.

The sink should be made of good stoneware and fitted with a draining board. Such an arrangement is shown above

The sink should be made of good stoneware and fitted with a draining-board. Such an arrangement is shown above

The thrifty housewife who objects to sunlight because it fades her carpets' will herself fade if she excludes a full measure of light from her rooms. Light is as essential to health as fresh air.

Windows should begin at a point not more than 30 inches from the floor level, and extend as near to the ceiling as practicable.

Windows with high sills make a gloomy room, and by restricting the outlook, particularly of those who are seated, only half serve their purpose.

The use of coloured glass panes in living-room windows, added by the enterprising builder as an attraction to the unwary, although generally confined to the upper parts of the windows, is a feature best appreciated in its absence.

The patches of colour it throws into the room when the sun shines are distracting, and produce unlooked-for and not always welcome effects upon pictures and other surfaces never intended to be seen by particoloured illumination.

When it is necessary to secure privacy, prismatic and other forms of obscured glass are preferable, since they exclude a minimum of light consistent with their purpose.

Some advantages of the bay window have already been noticed. In its modified form as the oriel it makes a charming feature in any room.

Bay windows with wooden stiles are preferable to those in which the window surface is interrupted by brick or stone pillars.

The housewife with an eye for decorative effect will see that the windows have inside sills wide enough to accommodate her pot plants or vases of cut flowers.


If the floors have been laid with damp and unseasoned boards (see diagram on page 466), the latter will shrink in width, leaving a series of gaps that are not only unsightly, but become receptacles for dust and insanitary matter.

On the ground level particularly, these gaps may become channels for cold air to enter the rooms, as all floors at this level are ventilated below by "air bricks," or should be.

Not only is this form of draught a constant cause of discomfort in winter, but the air entering in this way brings with it unhealthy emanations from the soil below the floor.

It is no uncommon thing to see a thin carpet lifted bodily from the floor by this draught in windy weather.

See, therefore, that the floor boards fit closely in the house you may have under consideration as your future home.

Note also whether the boards all stand at the same level. Floors constructed of cheap boarding, or improperly laid, frequently show appreciable differences in the thickness of adjacent boards. Such floors are not only unpleasant under-foot, but the edges of the boards which stand highest will, in time, show through the carpet by concentrating the wear along a definite line.

If covered with linoleum they soon impress their outlines upon its upper surface.

The condition of the floors as regards the surface of the boards should be examined, because it is not always desirable to carpet the whole surface, and when staining is resorted to for the "surround," worn and badly used boards give a very indifferent result.

Wood-block floors have certain advantages, not the least of which is that they must be laid on a concrete foundation, so that there is no soil exposed beneath the floor.

They are also pleasanter to walk upon, having none of the springiness of boards, with which is associated not infrequently a certain "creakiness."

Old country houses, charming in many ways if we can tolerate their shortcomings, are generally defective in their flooring. The boards suffer from wormholes, or, what is worse, dry-rot.

When the boards are of oak they date from a period when the carpenter did not pay too much attention to accurate fitting or the production of a flat and level general surface.

The Kitchen And Its Offices

Whether or not the housewife takes an active part in the culinary routine, it is essential that the kitchen should be conveniently planned.

An important point is that the cooking-range should be well lighted, which is best attained when the light comes from the left hand of the person facing the range.

One often finds the kitchen window facing the range, and in consequence the cook is always standing in her own light. There should be ample cupboard accommodation, space for a sufficiently large table, and shelfing enough to take the usual battery of cooking utensils.

The range should be large enough for all possible requirements, and of modern pattern, with adjustable grate and vertical bars.

Very small kitchens become unpleasantly hot in summer, and it is cruelty to expect the maid to sit in a room heated by the sun from without and the range from within.

Little need be said about the scullery, beyond that its size should be ample for the operations usually conducted in it. The sink should be of good stoneware, and pro-vived with a draining-board

The larder is generally made to open from the scullery. It is better that it should be an annexe to the kitchen. The work conducted in the scullery includes the cleaning of boots and knives and other dusty operations, and it becomes practically impossible to prevent the finer dust from penetrating to the larder if a door only separates the two apartments.

The larder should be ventilated from out-side, and no hot-water piping should pass near it.