Work from left to right. Put the needle in on the line to the right side and close to the point where it started and bring it out again exactly under the last point to the depth to which the scallop is required.

Hold the cotton with the thumb of the left hand so as to form a loop, and the needle comes up inside it. Arrange the loops so that they come exactly and evenly together.

An edging can be made in small scallops (see illustration) or in a straight line, according to taste. The three rounds worked on collar are in satin stitch.

This is often worked from left to right, but can be worked from right to left. It is a succession of stitches put side by side at even distances. Put the needle in at the top, and bring it out exactly underneath where it was put in to the depth required for the leaf, or scroll, and work over and over in this way until the flower or scroll, is completely covered. The lines on the collar are worked in outline stitch.

This is very like crewel stitch, only the cotton should be placed to the left of the needle, and in doing crewel stitch it should always be kept to the right-hand side.

If crewel or outline stitches are worked properly, those on the wrong side look like ordinary back-stitches.

Scalloped Buttonholing

Scalloped Buttonholing

Straightedge Buttonholing

Straightedge Buttonholing

Outline Stitch

Outline Stitch

Note. In making the collars always leave an inch of neckband at each end, so that they can be neatly buttoned or fastened on to the dress or blouse.

Collar 2. This is the newest kind of double stock-collar. It is made of fine muslin, with an original design worked in crewel stitch, chain stitch, and French knots.

Method of Work. Use robe muslin, price is. per yard, and cut the collar to the depth of two inches, making a narrow French hem along the ends and lower edge. Cut a foundation band, also two inches deep, of double material, and place the upper edge of collar between edges of band, and machine it along.

Sketch a small pattern on to the muslin, and embroider it with Moravian cotton No. 7, price 2d. a reel. Work the flowers in crewel stitch and the stem in chain stitch.

To do Chain Stitch. Work from above downwards. Put in the needle on the line, and bring it out about one-seventh of an inch lower down the line. Hold the thread in place with the thumb of the left hand, and put the needle in again at the place where it came out, and withdraw it a little lower down; thus each stitch is looped inside the last. Care is necessary to keep all the loops exactly of one size.

A few French knots look well along the stem of chain stitch.

Collar 3. This dainty little collar sets closely to the neck, and is a favourite with those who like to wear high collars. It is made of robe muslin, edged with tatting.

To Work French Knots. Put the needle through the work from the wrong side and make a knot on the right side of the material. To do this, hold the working thread down firmly with the thumb of the left hand, and twist the cotton two or three times round the needle, and put it through to the wrong side 0f the material very near the hole where it came out, say two or three threads at the back of it. French knots are most useful as flower centres, or for outlining leaves, etc.

Method of Work. Cut a long, straight piece of muslin 3 1/2 inches deep (this allows for turnings) and 26 inches long. Machine very small tucks 1 1/2 inches long across the top of the muslin, taking care to pull the threads through to the wrong side, and tie them to keep the tucks from coming undone. After the tucks are made, put the piece of material between the edges of foundation band and machine along it. Decorate the edges, corners, and centre with a simple pattern of tatting (directions for nuking which will be given in a subsequent article) or with narrow real lace.

Collar 4. This Peter Pan collar is made of fine lawn, braided, and the satin stitch and French knots are worked with D.m.c. cotton, No. 18, price 1d. a skein.

Crewel Stitch

Crewel Stitch

Chain Stitch

Chain Stitch

French Knot

French Knot

Method of Work. Cut the collar to the depth and size required. Turn up the edge and machine on to it a piece of braid. Then machine on to the collar a small narrow neckband.

Fold the collar in half, and place it over the tracing paper, and draw an original design.

An open pattern is more effective for braiding.

Buy a penny skein of the narrowest cotton braid (Russian braid). Make a tiny hole through the material in the centre of the design and put the braid through it, and tack firmly on the wrong side. Then back-stitch the braid carefully on to the pattern, curving it round, or turning it sharply over at the points. Finish the centre of the pattern, and hide the place where the braiding finishes by working a round of satin stitches. Work the leaves with satin or crewel stitch, and the stems in outline stitch.

Collar 5. This is a stand-up collar with supports at the side, and is a particularly comfortable shape to wear.

It is made of linen decorated with blanket stitch, lace stitch, and bullion stitch. Method of Work. Cut a straight piece of linen 2 1/2 inches deep and length required. Curve the material slightly in the front so as to make it only 1 3/4 inches deep.

At some slight distance from the edge of the collar work all round with an uneven blanket stitch, as this is more suitable for fancy work than the even one. To work an uneven blanket stitch as seen on collar. Work from left to right. and vary the stitches in depth from 1/4 to 1/6 of an inch in depth.

Put the needle through the material from wrong to right side, some little distance from the edge, then put the needle in at the top and bring it out at the depth to which the edge is required and just below where it was brought up. Let the thread pass under the needle to make a buttonhole stitch. For the next stitch insert the needle at the same line as the last, only withdraw it at a shorter depth, and make the third stitch still shorter; thus a pretty uneven edge is obtained. After blanket stitching all round the collar cut away the rough edges.

Decorate the collar with rounds or ovals of lace stitches. These are very simple, but need care so as not to stretch the material out of shape. When the lace stitches are completed the material is cut away from behind them, leaving the transparent work. To Work Lace Stitch. Start by making a small loop at the edge of Bullion Stitch the pattern, then turn the needle round and put the eye of it through the loop already made. Draw the cotton up into a second loop, and continue looping the cotton across the space in this way from hole to hole. To vary the pattern several loops can be made into one, as seen on part of the collar. The small sprigs on the collar are worked in bullion stitch.

Buttonholing 100128Two Peter Pan Collars

Two Peter Pan Collars

Double Stock Collar

Double Stock Collar

Robe Muslin Collar edged with tatting

Robe Muslin Collar edged with tatting

Stand up Collar with supports

Stand-up Collar with supports

Bullion Stitch. Put in the needle (using a fairly short one) and withdraw it at any length desired; twist the cotton round it six or seven times, and draw the thread through, holding the twist on the needle with the thumb of the left hand, keeping it well in place.

Then tip back the twist made into place on the material.

If the grub, or bullion stitch is needed deeper, twist the cotton several more times over the needle.

Note. To cut away the material from the back of the lace stitches, it is wise to insert small pieces of cardboard in the shape of the pattern, so as to cut round the edge of the material without the fear of cutting any of the lace work at the same time, and thus spoiling it.

The long and short variety of satin stitch is very useful in embroidering. To do this keep the outline even, but let the ends of the stitches be of uneven length (see sketch).

Buttonholing 100133Buttonholing 100134Satin Stitch

Satin Stitch

Cable chain stitch is also a most useful stitch in all kinds of fancy work; it varies from the ordinary chain stitch, which is very easy to do. To work cable chain stitch commence as for chain stitch and hold the working thread down with the thumb of the left hand putting the needle under the thread and give it a half twist on to the needle, and put the needle through to the back of the material and bring it out again with an ordinary chain stitch; then again put the needle under the thread and give the thread a little twist half round the needle as before and make another chain stitch, and so on for length required (see sketch).

Cable Chain Stitch

Cable Chain Stitch

This simple and highly ornamental stitch is useful for very many purposes, but is always most effective when worked in thick silk or cotton. It is excellent in a fine cord on cloth coat collars.