Separate the Articles
Wash each article separately, and do not put too many into the tub at one time.
The scrubbing-board may be used for the heavier and coarser articles, but collars, cuffs, and bands will be cleansed more easily if spread on the washing-board and brushed with a fairly soft brush. Care should be taken not to injure the fabric in any way.
Large articles, such as sheets and tablecloths, should be folded whilst washing, and then soaped and rubbed by the selvedge.
Special attention must be paid to the more soiled parts of the clothes, which must be given an extra soaping and rubbing.
If the clothes are not clean after the first washing, the process must be repeated in a second hot water until all dirt is removed. Soap and rub in the same way in the second water, turning such garments as can be turned on to the wrong side.
After the things have been washed clean they will be ready for boiling.
If there is any fear of the copper discolouring the clothes, it will be safer to put them into bags. This is more particularly necessary in the case of small things, like collars,cuffs,and handkerchiefs. The bags should be made of thin, open calico, with an opening left in the seam to allow the water to circulate round the clothes.
Do not put too many things at one time into the boiler. The water, in which a little soap has been dissolved, should be warm when the clothes are put into it, and after it has come to the boil for fifteen to twenty minutes.
Careless and insufficient rinsing is one of the commonest causes of badly coloured linen, and too much attention cannot be paid to this part of the work.
The clothes must be rinsed in plenty of warm water (two, or even three, separate waters may be necessary) until every trace of soap has been removed. They can then be dipped into, and wrung out of, blue water to restore the colour.
Keep the blue water well mixed up from the bottom of the tub. Do not put in too many articles at one time, and never in a twisted roll.
Do not allow the clothes to remain in the blue water, or they will become streaky, but rinse them quickly, and wring them out.
Wringing is best done by a machine. The clothes must be shaken out and folded evenly before being put through the wringer, and all buttons and tapes must be protected.
The wringer should be worked evenly and not in jerks, and a strain must not be put upon the machine through inserting too great a thickness of articles at one time between the rollers.
If the wringing is done by hand, it must be done on the selvedge way of the material, to prevent stretching the article out of shape.
After wringing, the clothes must be sorted, those requiring starching put to one side, and the others shaken and hung up to dry.
The clothes-line must first be rubbed with a clean duster, and then the clothes secured to it with wooden pegs. Good, firm props for raising the line are also required.
Hang the clothes with a good piece of the material over the line, and with the heaviest part upwards, and in such a position as will best catch any wind. Small articles should be pinned together, and cuffs and collars strung on a tape or string.
Clothes should be dried indoors in as warm an atmosphere as possible, and must either be hung on a clothes-horse or on a clothes-drier fixed to the ceiling, so that it can be raised or lowered by a rope and pulleys. To be continued.