A LLtoo frequently disease or accident causes haemorrhage of a kind which cannot be controlled by pressure; yet, so serious are the consequences of great loss of blood, that prompt steps should be taken to minimise the danger while awaiting the arrival of the doctor.
The rupture of a blood-vessel which lies within the trunk causes the blood to flow into the cavity of the chest or abdomen, or into the stomach, and in such circumstances pressure on the injured vessel is clearly impossible. Such bleeding may be recognised by well-defined symptoms. The patient is pale and faint, the skin is cold and clammy, the pulse is feeble, the breathing is hurried and laboured, and there is a great restlessness, with constant yawning and sighing.
The first thing is to place the patient in a recumbent position, so as to retard the action of the heart; windows should be set open, tight clothing loosened at the neck and waist, and one helper should gently fan the patient. A small piece of ice should be given to the patient to suck, or he should sip cold water with a little vinegar added to it, if ice cannot be obtained. A cloth wrung out of cold water and vinegar or chips of ice in an ice-bag, extemporised from a sponge-bag or a piece of mackintosh, should be placed over the seat of haemorrhage. Cold water sprinkled on the face, eau de Cologne or spirit and water rubbed on the forehead, or smelling salts held to the nose are serviceable, and if the patient is reduced to a state of collapse, the feet should be raised and the legs and arms firmly bandaged.
When haemorrhage occurs in the lungs or in the stomach, the blood soon makes its appearance. In the former case it is frothy and of a bright-red colour, and is coughed up in small quantities by the patient. In the latter case the blood is vomited in large quantities as a dark red clot, with which is often mixed particles of undigested food. The general treatment for internal haemorrhage must be followed, the cold application being made over the chest in cases of lung bleeding and over the pit of the stomach when the haemorrhage is in the stomach. Keep the patient as quiet as possible, and do not allow any form of exertion.
First aid treatment. Bleeding from the lungs
Nose Bleeding Nose bleeding may arise from an accident or may be caused by constitutional disturbance, and be the sign of disease. Pressing the nostrils firmly just below the bridge will check a slight flow of blood,- but with severe haemorrhage other remedies must be tried. Make the patient lie down in a cool place, and apply a cold body, such as a piece of ice, a large key, a pebble, or a marble paper-weight, to the back of the neck. If possible, place small pieces of ice in a rubber bag or piece of flannel, and apply them to the bridge of the nose, or syringe the bleeding nostril with ice-cold water or cold tea. If this fails, take a small conical pad of lint or cottonwool, dip it in a styptic, such as perchloride of iron or matico powder, and press it gently yet firmly, into the nostril. If this fails, medical assistance must be summoned, so that the nose can be plugged at the back and at the front. With nose bleeding the patient should breathe through the mouth, so as not to disturb the injured blood-vessels.
Some people are so constituted that they bleed very freely, and even such a trifling operation as the extraction of a tooth may
Medical give rise to serious haemorrhage. Such people should always warn their dentist of this constitutional tendency. In ordinary cases of bleeding from a tooth cavity, ice or ice-cold water suffices, or water as hot as can be borne may prove more effectual; but with excessive bleeding the tooth should be replaced in the cavity, or it should be filled with a small pad of lint or cotton-wool, dipped in a styptic powder, and the jaws kept firmly together, so as to press the loose tooth or pad against the injured blood-vessels. Slight bleeding inside the mouth from the lip, tongue, or cheek can be controlled by sucking ice or by holding very hot water in the mouth; but, whichever remedy is followed, it is not advisable to swallow the liquid with its admixture of blood. Bleeding from the Ear Channel
Bleeding from, the ear channel is commonly associated with fracture of the base of the skull. The first aid treatment for such haemorrhage is to wipe away the blood as it flows, and to avoid plugging the ear. Varicose Veins
The diseased condition known as varicose veins often gives rise to severe haemorrhage, owing to the bursting of the blood-vessels. The veins of the leg are specially liable to become varicose, through the downward pressure of the blood distending the veins so that the valves cannot close to prevent the tendency to a backward flow which results from prolonged standing or the wearing of tight garters. When haemorrhage occurs from varicose veins, digital pressure must be applied as promptly as possible to the seat of injury, and as soon as can be managed the thumb must be replaced by a graduated pad of lint, which must be securely bound in position. The leg should be firmly bandaged both above and below the wound, and it should be kept raised and in a comfortable position until the doctor arrives.
Whenever medical aid is sought for an injured person, the doctor should be informed as accurately as possible of the nature and extent of the injury, so that he may arrive provided with suitable appliances and remedies.
1. An incised wound is a simple cut with a knife or sharp in-s t r um ent. Such a wound should be washed with clean water or with water containing an antiseptic, and bound firmly with a clean linen bandage. If the wound is large and gapes open, medical assistance must be sought to bind the edges together with stitches; but, with slighter injuries, a strip of goldbeater's skin or court plaster suffices to keep the edges closed till the wound is healed.
How to arrest nose bleeding
2. A contused wound is brought about by a blow with a heavy instrument, which tears the skin and bruises the surrounding tissue. This is best treated by a clean folded handkerchief or a piece of lint soaked in spirit lotion made by a mixture of equal parts of cold water with whisky or brandy, which must be lightly spread over the injured part, and renewed as soon as it becomes warm.
A Lacerated Wound
3. A lacerated wound is one which accompanies accidents involving the loss of a limb or the tearing of flesh from the body by the wheels of machinery, etc. Such wounds are of a very serious nature, and all that can be done by the lay helper is to arrest bleeding, to cover the wound with a clean cloth or piece of flannel wrung out of very hot water, and to treat the patient for shock.
the doctor is late the warm applications must be continued, but the second and subsequent ones should be applied on top of the first one, so as to avoid disturbance of the wound and exposure of it to the air.
Treatment for burst varicose vein