N.B.-This linen thread and where it can be obtained is mentioned on page 74, in Vol. 1, under the heading, " Materials Required for Tailoring."
Thread the second needle with the twist-a length of about three-quarters of a yard is sufficient for a buttonhole about three-quarters of an inch long. Tailors' buttonholes are worked from right to left; dressmakers' from left to right.
Stick the needle with the waxed thread into the coat on the right side at a short distance from the end of the slit, and bring it out just below the end of the slit, as shown in Diagram 3. Drop the needle, and hold the thread under the left thumb close to the slit.
Commence working the buttonhole with the twist, bring the needle up from the wrong side, just below the thread, and work over it (not into it), from right to left.* Before drawing the needle up out of the material, take hold of the twist with the right hand, and pass it under the point of the needle, from right to left.
Draw the needle sharply, and firmly, out of the material, taking hold of the twist near the work (and not at the whole length of the twist), and pull the twist first upwards, and then sharply across the slit. Again insert the needle through the slit, bring it up just below the thread, to the left of, and close to, the stitch just made, and repeat from *. Continue in this way until the end of the straight edge of the buttonhole has been worked. It should then appear as in Diagram 4. Then, before commencing the curve, draw the linen thread-which runs under the stitches-tightly, to make the edge firm and straight. Work round the curve, making the stitch in the same way (and still holding the thread under the stitches), but in drawing the twist through do so sharply, holding it straight up, so as to bring the "purl" edge as much as possible on the top.
Diagram 4. The buttonhole as it should appear while working. The arrow-head indicates knot of waxed thread
When the hole has been worked round. work the second straight side the same way as the first-viz., by drawing the twist up sharply, and then across the buttonhole. Work to the end, to exactly opposite the first stitch made at the commencement of the buttonhole.
Draw the waxed thread up tightly, pass the needle, with the thread, through to the wrong side of the coat, fasten it off neatly, and cut it off. The knot which is at the commencement of the thread, on the right side of the coat, can now be cut away.
Put the needle with the twist through the head, or "purl," of the first stitch, and draw the two sides firmly together. Bring the needle through again to the right side at the end of the buttonhole, and make two stitches straight across the end. Work three buttonhole-stitches over the two straight ones to form the "bar." The "purl" end of the three stitches must be towards the "punched" hole. Pass the needle through to the wrong side of the coat, fasten off the twist firmly, and cut it off.
Diagram 5. The two straight edges of the buttonhole tacked together by means of two or three stitches worked over and over across the edges
Tack the two edges of the straight portion of the buttonhole together with two or three stitches, worked over and over across the
Dres3 l606 edges, drawing them just together, but not letting them overlap; tack back again, crossing each stitch, as shown in Diagram 5. N.b.-tailors always tack their buttonholes together in this way, to keep the edges perfectly even for pressing, and they perfect the " punched " hole by holding it firmly down close to the slit with the left thumb nail, and shaping it with a " bodkin." The tailors' bodkin was illustrated on page 73, Vol. I.
To Prevent Buttonholes "Fraying:"
When the buttonholes are being worked in a loose serge, or any material likely to " fray," the edges should first be neatly oversewn with fine silk, and the oversewing must be worked well " on the slant," to hold the threads of the material down. Tailors always work the buttonhole-stitch slightly slanting (though it is almost inperceptible) for the same reason. Before sewing on the buttons give the coat the final pressing.
The buttons should be sewn on to the coat with " waxed " twist or thread. They must be sewn on loosely, and at the same time very securely. The easiest way is to hold an ordinary bodkin under the button whilst sewing it on. The stitches must be taken through the material, canvas, and linen, but not through to the " facing " or lining of the coat. When a sufficient number of stitches have been made to secure the button firmly, bring the needle out between it and the material, remove the " bodkin," and wind the twist, or thread, firmly and evenly round the stitches several times to form a " stem " to fit into the " punched " hole and allow the buttonhole to close when the coat is buttoned.
N.B.-If the button is sewn tightly down without a stem, the buttonhole will " gape " open when the coat is fastened. The same thing will occur if no hole is " punched " at the end of the slit.
To Make a Hanging-loop
A " loop " made from a piece of the lining can be sewn across the back of the neck by which to hang up the coat; but a "coat-hanger," sold for the purpose, and costing only a few pence, is far better, as it does not spoil the shape of the collar.
If a loop is preferred, it can be made by cutting a strip of the lining on the straight, selvedgewise, about 1 inch wide and 4 1/2 inches long; turn down the edge on each side, and make a turning of about a quarter of an inch at each end, fold it together lengthwise, and sew the two edges together all round. Stitch this strap on firmly at each end across the back of the neck of the coat.
The coat in the sketch has a collar " faced " with the same material; but if a velvet collar is preferred, the collar should be done in just the same way, and " faced " with the velvet afterwards. It is always better to " face " it first with the material. It gives the velvet a softer appearance, besides being more practical, as when the velvet is shabby it can be taken off, the collar being complete without it.
The collar can be either completely covered with velvet, or a margin of the material can be left showing all round beyond it.
The velvet must be cut perfectly on the cross-instructions for cutting on the cross were given on page 233, Vol. I.-and it must be put on to the collar with the " pile " running upwards, so that it shades darker, and should brush downwards (against the pile).
The Collar "Faced" with Velvet
If the collar is to be entirely faced with velvet, it must be cut wide enough to turn over the edge. Pin it on with needles, or fine steel pins, and tack it on with silk. Turn over the edge of the collar, and tack it. Cut it off evenly, leaving a narrow turning only, and very neatly herringbone it to the wrong side of the collar, with fine silk to match.
From the break (or opening where the collar joins the revers) the velvet must be cut off and turned in-a narrow turning only-just to reach the join, and then very neatly felled down along the join. The thread must not be drawn too tightly, or every stitch will show.
The velvet on the stand of the collar must be drawn smoothly and evenly over it, tacked, and the raw edge herringboned down under the lining of the coat, which is felled over it round the neck. If the collar is only to be partially faced with velvet, it must be cut to reach just beyond the row of stitching round the collar, turned in to the row of stitching, tacked, and very neatly felled on.
In removing the tacking, every stitch must be cut, to avoid marking the velvet.
N.B.-The velvet must be well stretched along the outer edge of the " fall " of the collar, to enable it to set as tightly as possible over the " stand," which is smaller, and where the velvet must set perfectly smoothly round. Place a small cutting of velvet under the thumb when working, holding it the " pile " to the "pile," as it so easily marks, especially if the worker has a warm hand.
When the edge of a collar which is to be "faced" with velvet is very rounded, the velvet can be stretched over a hot iron. It must only be done at the outer edge of the " fall," and as velvet is so easily marked with the iron, this stretching requires to be very carefully done.
The best way to press velvet, or other materials with a " pile," is to do it on an inverted iron on a stand especially made for holding the iron in this position. If one of these stands is not available, the iron must be held by someone in this inverted position while the worker passes the velvet over it, or the iron can be placed on end on a stand, and the handle held by someone to prevent its moving.
This series of Practical Lessons in Tailoring .will be continued.