Hairdressing, especially in its most important and paying branch, ladies' hairdressing, is an occupation which has not been taken up so generally by educated women as might have been expected.
Many women have a natural aptitude for the work, as, indeed, is shown by the tasteful and artistic way in which they arrange their own hair. They start, therefore, with a great advantage over a man in this special department.
It is true that most of the large Bond Street shops employ women assistants, but elsewhere there are plenty of opportunities which seem generally neglected.
Perhaps the chief reason why the work does not appeal so much to gentlewomen is that, generally speaking, most women engaged in it have been content, after serving their apprenticeship, to remain as assistants in shops.
If shop work is distasteful, there is no reason why a woman who has gone through a thorough training should not find a more congenial outlook for her talents by working up a connection as visiting hairdresser.
Fashionable women who are going out to dinner or the theatre generally send round to one of the big shops, and are attended in their own homes by a woman assistant, but this, of course, comes rather expensive. The visiting hairdresser, working on her own account, and with no establishment expenses to meet, could afford to accept somewhat lower fees, which would give her a compensating advantage.
It is useless to think that a girl by taking a few lessons in hairdressing would be able to compete successfully with the shops. She must be thoroughly expert, and she can only become so by apprenticing herself to a first-class firm for two or three years.
The premium at a West End shop is generally about £30 for a three years' course, and the apprenticeship is preceded by a month's trial to enable both the employers and herself to see whether she is fitted for the work.
If accepted, she receives a small salary to begin with, about 5s. a week, so that by the time she has finished her course she has received back more than the amount of the premium paid. She will have an opportunity of learning wig-making, which is often carried out by women as a home employment, and is fairly well paid. As an assistant in a good shop she will receive a salary of 30s. a week, which, with tips and commission on articles sold, would bring her earnings up to quite £2 a week.
By J. T. Brown, F.z.s., M.r.san.i.,
When a thorough knowledge is acquired of the nutritive qualities of grains and meals, and specially-prepared foods, and the market prices for such are noted, one is able to determine which class of food can be profitably discarded and replaced by others. As regards grains and meals, oats undoubtedly stand first in nutritive value, but in the whole state, owing to the indigestibility of their husks, they are unsuitable for growing stock, although for laying hens they form one of the best egg-producing grain foods it. is possible to use in conjunction with maize or barley in winter, or wheat during mild seasons.
Oats in a ground form are excellent food for growing chickens, for fattening fowls for the table, or for feeding the laying stock, and when used in conjunction with other and less expensive meals, they form a rational basis of an economical kind for mash foods.
Wheat in a whole form is useful, when used with other grains, for feeding laying hens. Exclusively fed, it is not an economical egg-producer, as it is deficient in flesh-forming and heat-producing elements. For growing stock during spring and summer, it may be used with, advantage as a supper feed. Bran and the coarse flours of wheat, such as firsts, seconds, and thirds, known in various counties by different names, such as shorts, sharps, pollard, and tailings, are rich in albuminoids, or flesh and egg forming properties, and may be fed with advantage in the mashes.
Barley is rich in -caubo-hydrates, and, therefore, goes to the production of bodily heat and fat. For laying hens it may be used in the whole state in conjunction with oats and wheat during spells of cold and wet weather, whilst during periods of frost it may be used in the ground form for adding heat-producing properties to the mash food. Barley meal is much used for the fattening of poultry, and when used in conjunction with ground oats and milk, it forms an economical food for that purpose.
Maize, or Indian corn, as it is commonly called, is a heat and fat-producing grain, and should, therefore, only be used during frosty weather, and then in conjunction with other grains rich in albuminoids, such as oats and wheat.
In the ground state, maize is much used for fattening purposes, but its use is not to be recommended where really first-class table birds are to be produced.
Cooked maize is an economical food to use alternately with other foods for the feeding of growing geese or ducklings.
Rice is a starchy food, but when properly prepared, it is a most economical one to use in conjunction with cereals rich in protein and albuminoids during the winter months, and the fowls eat it with avidity. Rice, if gently boiled till thoroughly swollen, may be used twice a week in preparing the mashes for laying hens. It is a food much used by duck fatteners in the Aylesbury districts, and produces flesh of good colour. Rice is useful as a change among young fowls, as it tends to ward off looseness of the bowels. Its use in mild weather is not to be recommended for laying fowls, as it has a tendency to produce internal fat, and overheat the system.