Globes

The old-fashioned globes with only a 2-inch (in diameter) aperture at the bottom are still used; but they cause considerable flicker of the flame, which involves loss of light, and is trying to the eyes; they cost from 7 1/2 d. upwards. The best globes have at least 4-inch openings, which render the flame steady; opal or milk glass gives the best light, costing from 1/9 upwards; coloured globes may be bought from 2/-upwards.

To Detect Leakages

If the smell causes suspicion of a leakage, the simplest way of proving this is by turning off every burner and then examining the meter. The exact spot, in an exposed pipe, may be ascertained by painting it with a mixture of soap and water, using a camel-hair brush, when bubbles will be seen forming round the leak.

To Stop A Leak

Paint the pipe with oil paint contain-ing red lead. If the leak is in an ill-fitting bracket joint, it may be stopped by applying freely a mixture of two parts beeswax to one of tallow, used warm.

Jumping Lights

Water in the pipes is frequently the cause of this, in which case a man from the gasworks should be asked to bring an apparatus to force or pump the water out.

Gas-Poisoning

Symptoms

Headache, giddiness, loss of memory and power of movement, profound insensibility, dilated pupils, laboured breathing, convulsions, and, if not discovered in time, coma followed by death.

Treatment

I. Throw open doors and windows, carry patient into another room, turn off gas at meter.

2. Apply strong ammonia to the nostrils, rub the legs and feet with dry mustard, also the region of the heart.

3. Perform artificial respiration for some hours if necessary.

4. Inject a pint of hot coffee into the bowel.

5. Pour on to the head alternate douches of hot and cold water.

ACETYLENE GAS is made from calcium carbide by the action of water on that compound; the residue is slacked lime. Acetylene comes off as a gas, great heat being evolved in the process.

A special burner is used of the fish-tail type, a large quantity of air being necessary to completely burn the gas. It gives out more heat and light per cubic foot than coal-gas, and hence is more economical. The cost of lighting by acetylene is about the same as coal gas, using ordinary burners, but twice as much when incandescent burners are used. It is less poisonous, but more explosive. The cost of plant for making and storing for a ten-light meter is about 20. It requires so little space that it can be accommodated in an outhouse six feet square.

Air gas is another illuminant well adapted for country houses; though it is now perhaps being superseded by petrol gas. It can be used for :

(a) Lighting.

(b) Enriching, i.e. increasing the heat and light-giving powers of coal-gas.

(c) To some extent in photography, as it shows up colours almost as clearly as daylight.

(d) Being easy to make, it is useful for heating and lighting remote schools and other buildings.

(e) With special burners it can be used as a source of heat for Bunsen's and gas-stoves.