This section is from the book "A Book Of Recipes For The Cooking School", by Carrie Alberta Lyford. Also available from Amazon: A book of recipes for the cooking school.
1 Can only fresh, sound products.
2 Sort, wash, and prepare the products.
3 Blanch all green vegetables in steam; blanch all other
vegetables and the hard and citrus fruits in boiling water. Do not blanch berries and other soft fruits.
4 Dip the vegetables or fruits quickly into cold water and remove them immediately.
5 Pack at once in clean, hot jars.
6 Place scalded rubbers in position on the jars.
7 Add 1/2 teaspoon of salt for each pint of vegetables.
8 Fill jars of vegetables with boiling water; fill jars of fruit with hot syrup of density desired. Paddle out any air bubbles with a flat whittled stick one and one-half inches in width.
9 Place cap in position.
10 Partially tighten the tops of the glass jars by adjusting
only the larger bail of the glass top jar, or by screwing the top of the Mason jar on completely, then turning it back one-fourth of a turn to loosen it.
11 Place jars on the rack, lower them into the hot-water bath and boil 2 hours for greens; 1 1/2 hours for roots and tubers; 3 hours for beans; 5 hours for corn and peas; 16 minutes for berries and soft fruits; 20 minutes for hard fruits; and 30 minutes for fruits without sugar. Begin to count the time when the water begins to boil vigorously or jumps.
12 Be sure that the lid of canner is provided with a small hole to allow for escape of steam.
13 Remove the jars from the boiler at the end of the sterilization, or processing, period and seal immediately.
14 Invert the jars to test the seal. If not sealed properly, determine the cause, remedy it, and re-sterilize in the hot-water bath for 10 minutes.
15 Cool as quickly as possible, avoiding drafts.
16 Label, wrap, and store jars in a cool, dark place. A uniform system of labelling will add to the attrac-tiveness of canned goods. Use labels of one size for all jars. Print the name of food and year on each label. Place the labels 4 inches from bottom of quart jars, 2 inches from bottom of pint jars, and l 1/2 inches from bottom of jelly glasses. Put the labels on straight.
1 Do not use old or decayed products. They will probably spoil.
2 Use one set of directions onlv and follow the time table exactly.
3 Can products as soon after gathering as possible, as fruits and vegetables deteriorate rapidly.
4 Test all jars, covers, wire bails, rubbers, etc., to see if in good condition, or much loss may occur.
5 Never use rubbers a second time. Jars, covers, etc., if in good condition, may be used from year to year.
6 If wire bail or clamp does not go into position with a snap, remove it from jar and bend it so that it will be tighter. This is necessary for good results.
7 Keep water as near the boiling point as possible during blanching and time accurately, then dip in and out of cold water quickly. Soaking may ruin good material.
8 If possible, have jars stand in hot water while packing, to prevent their breaking when put into boiling water to process. Place each jar immediately into the hot-water bath as soon as filled.
9 Have water in the boiler at the boiling point when the jars are immersed, and do not begin counting the time until after the last jar has been placed in the hot-water bath and the water has once more reached the boiling point. Over-cooking is less harmful than under-cooking.
10 If no provision has been made for the escape of steam from the canner there is danger of the lid blowing off while sterilization is in process.
11 Do not have jars or containers close together while cooking; they are apt to crack if they touch one another.
12 As soon as the product is sterilized, or processed, for the stated length of time, remove the jars from the water-bath and seal them immediately so as to exclude all air. Never open a jar to replenish water that has decreased through shrinkage of material. The fact that there has been an apparent loss of liquid during the sterilization period does not impair the keeping quality.
13 Do not place hot jars on cold metal, as they may break; place on a board some distance apart so they may cool as quickly as possible.
14 Do not tighten the lids further after the product has cooled as the seal will thereby be broken and air may enter the jar.
15 Examine the jars after they have cooled over night, and if any of them look suspicious open them, put into other containers, cover with fresh boiling liquid, use new rubbers, and reprocess at once half as long as the original time. 16 After labeling, store the jars in a cool, dark place. Wrapping jars with paper prevents fading of foods.