This section is from the book "A Book Of Recipes For The Cooking School", by Carrie Alberta Lyford. Also available from Amazon: A book of recipes for the cooking school.
The term "meats" applies to the flesh of animals which is used as food and includes Meats Proper, Poultry, and Game.
Specifically the term "meat" is applied to the flesh of domestic animals which is used as food - beef, veal, mutton, lamb and pork.
The parts of animals used for food include the muscular tissue with fat and bone; special organs as the heart, liver, kidney, tongue, etc.; and such glands as the sweetbreads, pancreas, brains, etc.
The quality of the meat is dependent upon the following points:
1 Breed of the animal.
2 Age of the animal - Beef, three to eight years.
Mutton, over one year. Veal, six to ten weeks. Lamb, under one year.
3 Size of the animal.
4 Manner of fattening - stall fed or grass fed.
5 Amount of exercise.
6 Length of time killed
In preparation for market, the animal is killed, bled, dressed, and hung in a room whose temperature is slightly above the freezing point. During hanging a process of ripening takes place which causes the meat to become more tender. The meat of young animals is allowed to ripen for a few days, beef for three weeks, and mutton for even a longer time.
When meat is sold it is divided into cuts, which are varied according to the animal, its size and the purpose for which the cut is to be used.
The cost of meat is dependent on the local conditions and market prices. In general the more tender cuts are the most expensive but their nutritive value is no higher than that of the tough cuts.
Meat should be removed from the paper as soon as it comes from the market and kept in a cool place. It should never stand in the open air exposed to dust and flies but should be kept covered.