While flours and meals made from oats, corn, rice and other seeds are used to some extent with wheat flour in making yeast breads, by far the larger amount of yeast bread is made from wheat flour only and most of it is made from highly refined white flour. This is because the gluten of wheat flour possesses properties of toughness and elasticity which enable the dough containing it to stretch and hold gases produced in it by the action of yeast or introduced into it by baking-powder. The dough rises and becomes light.

However, the quality of wheat flour depends upon the season in which the wheat is grown. Winter wheat is sown in the fall, remains in the ground all winter and is harvested in the summer. This grain is generally poor in gluten, but rich in starch. Winter wheat is used largely for pastry flour. Spring wheat is sown in the spring and is harvested in the summer at about the same time as the winter wheat. The grain is generally rich in gluten but poor in starch. Spring wheat flours are best for bread making. Standard flours are a mixture of spring and winter wheat, and they vary little in quality.

In Selecting a Flour For Bread-making every effort should be made to secure a flour of good bread-making properties. Bread flour, when rubbed between the fingers, has a granular feeling. It will not hold its shape when pressed in the hand. Bread flour can be used successfully in making cakes and pastries.

A Good Pastry Flour differs from bread flour in containing more starch and not only less gluten but a less elastic gluten than bread flour. It has an oily feeling when rubbed between the fingers, and holds its shape when pressed in the hand. Pastry flour can not be used successfully in making bread.

Whole-Wheat or entire-wheat flour, combined in right proportions with white flour, can be made into excellent bread.

Graham Flour, although coarse, may, rightly combined with white flour, be made into excellent bread.