This section is from the book "The American Woman's Cook Book", by Ruth Berolzheimer. Also available from Amazon: The Domestic Arts Edition of the American Woman's Cook Book.
Stems - Enlarged underground stems called tubers: Irish potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes, dasheen or taro, yautia, kohlrabi, fennel.
Stem and Bud - Asparagus.
Bulbs - Onions (green, called scallions), leek, garlic, shallot.
Leaf Stalks - Celery, rhubarb.
Buds - Cabbage (terminal), Brussels sprouts (axillary).
Seeds - Peas, beans, lentils, corn, rice, Lima beans, soybeans, grains, cereals.
Fungi - Mushrooms, truffles.