Second. Meats are cooked in water to have the nutriment wholly in the liquid, as in soups and meat teas. Cut the meat in small pieces; soak in cold water, the longer the better; heat gradually, and keep hot, but not boiling, until all the goodness is extracted.

Third. Meats are cooked in water to have the nutriment partly in the liquid and partly in the meat, as in stews, fricassees, etc. Put the meat in cold water, let the water boil quickly, then skim, and keep at the simmering-point. The cold water will draw out enough of the juices to enrich the liquid; then, as it reaches the boiling-point, the meat hardens, and retains the remainder.

Fish is usually cooked in boiling water for the purpose of keeping the juices in the fish. As the flesh of fish breaks easily, the water should never be allowed to boil rapidly. Salmon, mackerel, or any very oily fish, should be put into cold water, and brought almost to the boiling-point quickly, as they have a very strong, rich flavor. A little of this flavor can be lost without injury to the fish.

Vegetables, which are mostly starch and water, should be put into boiling water and boiled rapidly, that the small portions of albumen which they contain may be hardened on the surface; then, if the starch grains are burst quickly, they will absorb the albuminous juices within.

Milk boils at 196°. Being thicker than water, less of the steam escapes, and the whole liquid becomes hot sooner than water. The bubbles rise rapidly, and, owing to their tenacity, do not burst at the surface, but climb over one another till they run over the edge of the pan.

Milk, grains, custards, and any substances which, from their glutinous nature, would be liable to adhere to the kettle, are much more easily and safely cooked in a double boiler, or in a pail within a kettle of water. This is one form of steaming, or cooking over boiling water. In steaming, the water should not stop boiling until the articles are cooked. This is a convenient form of cooking many articles which it is troublesome to cook with a dry heat, and yet do not need the solvent powers of water. Watery vegetables are rendered drier by steaming; and tough pieces of meat which cannot be roasted, are first made tender by steaming, and then browned in the oven. Sometimes meat is steamed in its own juices alone; this is called smothering, or pot-roasting.

Stewing is another form of boiling or cooking in a small qnantity of water, at a moderate heat, and for a long time. The word means a slow, moist, gentle heat. It is an economical mode of cooking, except where a fire has to be kept for this purpose alone. The long-continued action of a gentle heat softens the fibres; and the coarsest and cheapest kinds of meat, cooked in this way, with vegetables, may be made tender and nutritious. By judicious use of seasoning material, remnants can be made into savory and nourishing dishes. Whether we call it simply a stew, or ragout, haricot, or salmi, the principle is the same, -that of slow, steady simmering, rather than fierce boiling.

Fricasseeing (meaning "to fry") is a form of stewing. The term is usually applied to chicken, veal, or some small game, which is cut into pieces, and fried either before or after stewing, and served with a rich white or brown sauce, and without vegetables. Any meat that is quite juicy and not very tough may be first browned on the outside to keep in the juices, and improve the flavor. Coarse, tough pieces should not be browned, but dipped in vinegar to soften the fibre; and pieces containing much gristle should be put into cold water.

Braising is a form of stewing done usually in a braising-pan or kettle which has coals in the cover. Any granite or iron pan with a close cover to keep in the steam will answer the purpose. When placed in the oven, where it is surrounded by a slow, uniform heat, it needs very little attention. It is one of the most economical and satisfactory ways of cooking large pieces of tough, lean meat, pigeons, liver, fowls, heart, etc. Stock, vegetables, and bacon may be used, if a rich liquor be required; but water, herbs, and simple seasoning make it very palatable.

Baking is hardening or cooking in a dry heat, as in a close oven. Nearly all flour mixtures - bread, pastiy, and some forms of pudding - are more wholesome baked than when cooked in any other way. Many forms of baking are really stewing; but the closely confined heat of the oven gives an entirely different flavor from that obtained by stewing over the fire. This is seen in the difference between stewed and baked apple-sauce, beans, etc.

Meat and fish, if baked in the right way, lose less in weight than when boiled or roasted. To bake them properly, the juices must be kept within the meat. An intense heat at first is necessary to harden the albumen; then reduce the heat, that the outside may not become too hard, and baste frequently to prevent drying. No water should be put in the pan at first, as it will then be impossible to have a greater heat than that of boiling water (212°), while for baking meat 280°, or more, is required. Put one or two tablespoonfuls of beef drippings, or some of the fat from the meat, in the pan, to use in basting, as the fat can be made much hotter than water. If the joint be very large, or the meat need thorough cooking, like poultry, veal, or pork, water can be added to check the heat as soon as the outside is cooked sufficiently to keep in the juices. This will keep the meat moist. Small cuts, and meats to be eaten rare, are better baked without water.

Many persons accustomed to meat roasted before the open fire object to the flavor of baked meat. If the oven be very hot at first, and opened every five minutes just long enough for the beating, which is an essential part of be cooking process, the smoky odor escapes. If there be no damper to check the heat underneath the oven, put the grate or another pan under the dripping-pan, as no heat is required under the meat. This will prevent the fat in the pan from burning and smoking the meat. Place the meat with skin side down at first; the, if the juices begin to flow, the skin keeps them in; and, when turned, it brings the side which is to be up in serving next the hottest part of the oven, for the final browning.

All baked meat or fish should be slated and floured all over. Salt draws out the juices; but the flour unites which them, making a paste which soon hardens, and keeps them within. Baste often, and dredge with salt and flour after basting. If there be no shelf attached to the stove near the oven, keep a box or frame of wood just the height of the over, near by, and pushed up close to it; it will be found very convenient to pull the pan out upon it when or turning the meat.