Drawn Butter, or water and melted butter thickened with flour, and seasoned, is the simplest form of a sauce.

When milk, or cream, or white stock is used in place of water, less butter is required, and the sauce is called White, or Cream, or Bechamel sauce.

By browning the butter, using brown stock, and adding different seasoning materials, we have all the varieties of Brown sauces.

Many people fail in making sauces by not cooking the flour sufficiently, and also by serving them with a mass of oily butter on the surface. Usually the flour is wet to a smooth paste and stirred into the boiling liquid. When made in this manner, the sauce should boil at least ten minutes to have the flour thoroughly cooked. But by cooking the dry flour in the hot butter the starch in the flour is more quickly cooked, and the butter is all absorbed and converted into an emulsion. Sauces made in this manner are perfectly smooth, free from grease, and have a fine flavor. Every one should learn how to make both white and brown sauces. They are adapted to nearly every form of food. Meats, fish, vegetables, eggs, macaroni, rice, toast, etc., are rendered more palatable by being served with an appropriate sauce.

Drawn Butter Sauce

1 pint hot water or white stock. cup butter, scant.

2 tablespoonfuls flour. teaspoonful salt. saltspoonful pepper.

Put half the butter in a saucepan; be careful not to let it become brown; when melted, add the dry flour, and mix well. Add the hot water, a little at a time, and stir rapidly as it thickens. When perfectly smooth, add the remainder of the butter in small pieces, and stir tili it is absorbed. Add the salt and pepper. When carefully made, this sauce should be free from lumps; but if not smooth, strain it before serving.

The following sauces may be made with one pint of this plain drawn butter as a foundation: -

Caper Sauce (For Boiled Mutton)

Add six tablespoonfuls of capers. Pickled Nasturtium seeds may be used in place of capers.

Egg Sauce (For Baked Or Boiled Fish)

Add two or three hard-boiled eggs, sliced or chopped.

Parsley Sauce (For Boiled Fish Or Fowls)

Add two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley.

Lemon Sauce (For Boiled Fowl)

Add the juice and pulp of one large lemon, and the chicken liver boiled and mashed fine.

Shrimp Sauce (For Fish)

Add half a pint of shrimps, whole or chopped, two teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, and a few grains of cayenne pepper.

Acid Sauce

Add one tablespoonful of lemon juice or vinegar, and a few grains of cayenne pepper.

Mustard Sauce (for Devilled Turkey, Salt Fish, etc.). -Add three tablespoonfuls of mixed mustard and a little cayenne pepper.

Lobster Sauce (For Boiled Fish)

One pint of lobster meat, cut into quarter-inch dice. Put the inner shells and scraggy parts in one and a half pints of cold water, and boil fifteen minutes. Strain and use the water in making one pint of drawn butter sauce. Add the lobster dice, the dried and powdered coral, a little cayenne pepper, and two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice.

Oyster Sauce (for Boiled Fish, Turkey, or Chicken). -Parboil one pint of oysters; drain, and use the oyster liquor in making one pint of drawn bntter sauce. Season with celery salt and cayenne pepper. Add the oysters; cook one minute longer, and pour it over the fish or chicken. Add the beaten yolk of one egg or one glass of claret wine, if you wish a richer sauce.

Celery Sauce (For Boiled Fowl)

One pint of the tender part of celery, cut very fine. Cook in boiling salted water, enough to cover, till tender. Drain; add enough hot water to that in which the celery was cooked to make a pint, and use it in making one pint of drawn butter sauce. Add the cooked celery and the seasoning.

Richer Drawn Butter Sauce

Make a plain drawn butter sauce, and when ready to serve, pour it boiling hot into the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Stir thoroughly, season to taste, and serve at once.

Sauce Piquante

Add one tablespoonful each of vinegar and lemon juice, two tablespoonfuls each of chopped capers, pickles, and olives, half a teaspoonful of onion juice, and a few grains of cayenne pepper, to one pint of drawn butter.