It has been said that "good cooks never measure anything." They do. They measure by judgment and experience; and until you have a large share of both these essential qualities, use your spoon and cup or scales.

Measures, in preference to weights, are used in nearly all these receipts, as they are more convenient for the majority of housekeepers. When measured and estimated by the Table of Weights and Measures on page 30, the cup and spoon may be used as accurately as the scales.

Flour, meal, sugar, salt, spices, and soda should always be sifted before measuring. Any other materials that have been packed, like mustard and baking powder, if not sifted, should be stirred, and broken up lightly. One tablespoonful of solid mustard taken carelessly from the box has been found equal to three tablespoonfuls measured after sifting.

The saltspoons, teaspoons, and tablespoons used in these receipts are the silver spoons now in general use. Iron mixing-spoons vary much in size, but there is a size which holds exactly the same as a silver tablespoon. Be careful to use this size in measuring. The cup is the common kitchen cup holding half a pint Those with handles are more convenient.

To measure a rounded teaspoonful of dry material, dip into the sifted material, and take up a heaping spoonful, shake it slightly until it is just rounded over, or convex in the same proportion as the spoon is concave. A level xspoonful means the spoon filled lightly, and levelled off with a knife. One half teaspoonful is most accurately measured by dividing through the middle lengthwise. When divided across the width the tip is smaller than the lower half. A heaping teaspoonful is all the spoon will hold of any lightly sifted material. A teaspoonful of liquid is the spoon full to the brim.

Tablespoonfuls are measured in the same way. A cupful of dry material should be filled and heaped lightly (not shaken down), then levelled off even with the top. A small scoop should be kept in the flour or sugar to use in filling the cup. A heaping cupful is all the cup will hold. A cupful of liquid is not what you can carry without spilling, but what the cup will hold without running over; full to the brim. Place your cup in a saucer, while filling it, or in the bowl in which the liquid is to be poured. Half a cupful is not half the distance from the bottom to the rim. Most cups are smaller at the bottom, for which allowance must be made. Take two cups of the same size and shape, fill one with water, then pour the water without spilling into the other cup until it stands at the same level in both cups. This gives you the half-cupful exactly, which in the cups used here is two thirds of the height, or within an inch of the top. The quarter and three-quarter measures may be found in the same way. A scant cupful is within a quarter of an inch of the top.

"Butter the size of an egg," is a very common expression. This equals about one quarter of a cupful, or two ounces, or one heaping tablespoonful, either of which is more easily written than the first expression. Place an egg in one tablespoon, then pack butter in another till it fills the spoon in the same proportion as the egg, and you will easily carry it in mind.

Have your materials measured or at hand, and all utensils ready before beginning the mixing, or putting the ingredients together. Keep a bucket or pan full of flour, freshly sifted each day, and ready for use. Measure flour first, and put it in a bowl or pan together with salt, soda, cream of tartar, and spice; measure butter and put it in the mixing-bowl; then measure the sugar, and, in scraping out the sugar, take the butter which has adhered to the cup. Break your eggs on the edge of the cup; if the white be clear, the egg is good. Put the yolks in one bowl and the whites in another; measure the milk or liquid, and, after using the beaten yolk, clean out the bowl with the milk. Or, measure all the dry ingredients, break and separate the eggs, measure the milk, add it to the beaten yolks, and measure the melted butter last. In either way you can make one cup do for all without washing. "Two eggs beaten separately" means that the yolks and whites are to be beaten separately, not each whole egg beaten separately.

A tablespoonful of melted butter is measured after melting. A tablespoonful of butter melted is measured before melting.

To economize space, in many of the receipts the abbreviations are written: one cup for one cupful, tablesp. for tablespoonful, teasp. for teaspoonful, and saltsp. for salt-spoonful. All these measures mean a full measure, unless scant or heaping measures are specified.

Table of Weights and Measures.

4 saltspoonfuls of liquid

= 1 teaspoonful.

4 teaspoonfuls of liquid

= 1 tablespoonful.

3 teaspoonfuls of dry material

= 1 tablespoonful.

4 tablespoonfuls of liquid

= 1 wineglass, or 1/2 gill, or 1/4 cup

2 gills

= 1 cup, or pint.

16 tablespoonfuls of liquid

= 1 cup.

12 tablespoonfuls of dry material

= 1 cup.

8 heaping tablespoonfuls of dry material

= 1 cup.

4 cups of liquid

= 1 quart.

4 cups of flour

= 1 pound, or 1 quart

2 cups of solid butter

= 1 pound.

cup of butter

= pound.

2 cups of granulated sugar

= 1 pound.

2 cups of powdered sugar

= 1 pound.

3 cups of meal

= 1 pound.

1 pint of milk or water

= 1 pound.

1 pint of chopped meat packed solidly

= 1 pound.

9 large eggs, 10 medium eggs

= 1 pound.

1 round tablespoonful of butter

= 1 ounce.

1 heaping tablespoonful of butter

= 2 ounces, or cup

Butter the size of an egg

= 2 ounces, or cup

1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar

= 1 ounce.

2 round tablespoonfuls of flour

= 1 ounce.

2 round tablespoonfuls of coffee

= 1 ounce.

2 round tablespoonfuls of powd sugar

= 1 ounce.

1 tablespoonful of liquid

= ounce.

1 bottle S. M. wine

= 3 cups, or 48 tablespoonfuls.

1 bottle brandy

= 1 cups, or 24 tablespoonfuls-

1 small bottle Foss' extract

= cup scant, or 3 tablespoonfuls

1 small bottle Foss' extract

= 12 teaspoonfuls.

1 flask of olive oil

= 1 cups, or 20 tablespoonfuls