The names pancakes, fritters, flap-jacks, slap-jacks, batter-cakes, griddle-cakes, slappers, etc., are applied indiscriminately in different localities.

Pancakes were formerly a kind of muffin mixture, made a little stiffer than a drop batter, but not stiff enough to roll out, and were dropped from a spoon into hot fat. and fried like doughnuts. But, recently, the name has been applied to a very thin batter made usually without soda, cooked one cake at a time on a small well-buttered ftying-pan, and turned like a griddle-cake; then buttered, and rolled over and over, or spread with sugar and jelly, and then rolled. In "ye olden time" good cooks were supposed to have the knack of tossing the pan so skilfully that the cake would turn over itself; but this is now one of the lost arts.

For convenience and clearness, the following names will be used in this work: -

Griddle-Cakes: any kind of small, thin batter-cakes cooked on a griddle.

Pancakes: larger, thin batter-cakes, made without soda, and cooked in a small frying-pan.

French or Rolled Pancakes: the same as the preceding, buttered, sweetened, and rolled.

Fried Drop Cakes or Fried Muffins: any muffin mixture, dropped from a spoon into deep hot fat.

Fritters: a thinner mixture made without soda, either plain or with meat, fish, or fruit, and cooked by dropping into deep hot fat.