Trim such pieces of cut bread as will do for toast into uniform shape and serve at the next breakfast. Smaller pieces cut into croutons (page 81) for garnishing or for soup. Save unshapely pieces for bread pudding, Brown Betty, or stuffings. Save every scrap of bread for crumbs, to use for breading croquettes, chops, scallop dishes, etc. It is well to have two kinds of crumbs, using the white ones for the outside of fried articles, as they give a better color. To prepare the crumbs, separate the crumb from the crusts of bread and dry each of them slowly, on separate tins, on the shelf of the range. When dry, roll, sift and place them in glass preserve-jars until wanted.


Clarify all beef fat and drippings, the grease which rises on soup stock, and fat from poultry, and keep in a clean jar or tin pail for use in frying; it is preferable to lard (see "frying," pages 72 and 59). Mutton, turkey, and smoked meat fat has too strong a flavor to be used for frying, but save it with other fat that may be unsuitable for frying, and when six pounds are collected make it into hard soap (page 259).

Use the marrow of beef bones on toast for a luncheon entree (page 159), or use it with bread to make balls for soup (page 94).

Grill wings and legs of fowls that are left over (page 188) for luncheon, or stuff the legs as directed (page 188). If the sinews are removed from the legs when the fowl is drawn, as directed (page 180), the meat of the leg will be as good as that of the second joint.

Use a ham bone for improving bean soup. Use the carcasses of fowls and the bones from roasts for making soup.

Try out chop bones and other meat taken from the plates for soap fat.

Tough Pieces

Chop the tough ends of steak very fine, season, and form them into balls or cakes, saute or broil them, and serve for breakfast or luncheon (see "Hamburg steaks," page 151).

Small Pieces

Cut pieces of white meat into dice or strips, mix it with a white sauce, turn it into a flat dish, make a border of pointed croutons, sprinkle over the top a little chopped parsley, and garnish with hard-boiled egg; or mix the meat with aspic jelly in a mold and serve cold with salad.


Mix dark meats of any kind with a brown sauce, and garnish with lettuce leaves, hard-boiled eggs, and croutons. Any kind of cold meat may be chopped and used in an omelet, or combined with rice and tomatoes for a scallop. For cold mutton see "Ragout of Mutton" (page 165).


Save egg-shells to clear soup, jellies, or coffee. Boiled eggs that are left return to the fire and boil them hard to use for garnishing, to mix with salad, or to make golden toast (page 270) for luncheon. Cold poached eggs can be boiled hard and used in the same way. Cold fried or scrambled eggs can be chopped and mixed with minced meat, and will much improve it.

When an egg is opened for the white alone, drop the yolk carefully into a cup, cover the cup with a wet cloth, and keep it in the ice-box until wanted. When whites are left over make a small angel cake (page 467), angel ice cream (page 497), lasses (page 475), or cover any dessert with meringue, or serve a meringue sauce (page 448) with the next dessert, or make a meat souffle without yolks (page 190).

General Odds And Ends

Everything too small to utilize in other ways put in the soup pot, and from this can be drawn sauces and seasoning for minces, scallops, etc., that will often be better than specially prepared stock.


Oatmeal, hominy, cracked wheat, and other cereals which are left over can be added next day to the fresh stock, for they are improved by long boiling and do not injure the new supply, or such as is left can be molded in large or in small forms, and served cold with cream, or milk and sugar. In warm weather cereals are nicer cold than hot. Cold hominy and mush, cut into squares and fried, so that a crisp crust is formed on both sides, - also hominy or farina, rolled into balls and fried, - are good used in place of a vegetable or as a breakfast dish.

Any of the cereals make good pancakes, or a small amount added to the ordinary pancake batter improves it.

Cold rice can be added to soup, or made into croquettes, or used in a scallop dish, or mixed with minced meat and egg and fried like an omelet. Cold rice pudding can be cut into rounded pieces with a spoon and served again on a flat dish; this may be covered with whipped cream or flavored whipped white of egg.


A small amount of vegetables left over may go into the soup, or may be mixed with a ragout. Peas, tomatoes, or beans can be put in an omelet. A number of vegetables mixed together can be used for a salad. Cauliflower broken into flowerets, covered with white sauce, and sprinkled with grated cheese, makes "cauliflower au grating a dish which is much liked.

The coarse stalks and roots of celery make a good vegetable dish when cut in pieces and boiled, or they make a good cream-of-celery soup. The leaves are valuable in the soup pot for flavor; also are useful for garnishing.

Sour Milk

Sour milk makes cottage cheese, or makes good biscuits.

For uses of stale cakes see page 411.

For jellies left over see page 418.


When fruits show signs of deterioration, stew them at once instead of letting them decay. See compotes. Stew apple parings and cores to a pulp and strain; this will make a jelly which, spread on apple tart, greatly improves it.

Boil lemon and orange peels in sugar, and dry as directed, page 527, for candied peels.


Grate cheese which becomes dry and use for gratin dishes or soups; or it can be served with crackers the same as though in its original shape.