One-half ounce of nitrate of silver, three ounces of water, one-half ounce of gum-arabic; dissolve and keep in a dark bottle. Write on the clothes to be marked with a goose quill or a gold pen. This ink will ruin steel pens. H. I. E.
As the subject of cheese is discussed by itself we will here only speak briefly of butter. Butter making is a thing so generally understood by all who keep cows that only a word here is needed. The first great requisite of good butter is cleanliness. One cannot be too careful in seeing that the dairy, cellar, or the room in which the milk is set to rise, has an abundance of fresh air and is thoroughly clean and sweet. Decayed vegetables, or rank odors of any and every sort should be eliminated; the milk pans (or cans which are now much used) should be thoroughly scalded and dried in the sun or in the heater and then placed in the open air. The cream should be skimmed at the proper time and the churning should be done before the cream gets old. In skimming cream into the cream jars it should all be stirred up each time so that it becomes uniform and all sours alike. S. H.
In order to churn quickly the cream should be from 500 to 580 Fahr. In winter the cream can be set for an hour in a warm room to bring it to the proper degree of heat or warm water can be added to it after it has been placed in the churn. In the summer time it should be placed in ice-water or in a cellar.
Before putting cream in the churn scald churn well with hot water, then with cold, but do not wipe. Put in cream and churn evenly and quite rapidly at first slowing down as the butter begins to appear. After butter collects take it up in a wooden bowl with wooden ladle both of which must be scalded and then rinsed in cold water. Do not wash butter as that destroys some of its flavor. Add fine salt in proportion of two even teaspoonfuls to a pound, let get cold and then work the buttermilk out. Pack in jars or make in balls. W. H. KaDell.
Make a brine of salt strong enough to bear up an egg; add a little white sugar and a speck of saltpetre; boil the brine and when cold strain. Pour it over the butter so as to cover. This excludes the air. Place a weight over; plain salt and water brine is quite as good if preferred.
An article intended for dyeing must be clean, else it will not take the dye satisfactorily. First scour your goods thoroughly with soap and rinse the soap out well. When ready to color the goods, dip them in cold water, so that they will not spot. When they are dyed, air them. Rinse well after that and hang them up to dry. Silks and merinos must not be wrung. Cotton goods must be bleached or faded before dyeing, if a light color is desired.
There are a set of "Family Dyes" on the market, which are giving entire satisfaction, and which are simple to use, as the directions accompany them. There is no need to experiment as to the color you desire, as a color card goes with them. These dyes are cheap, and are the experiences of professional dyers. They can be obtained at any drug store.
Walnut bark will color any shade from a light tan to coal-black. Color the wool before carding, as follows: Peel the bark from the body of the tree (the bark off the roots is best). Put into a barrel a layer of bark and wool alternately, till you fill the barrel, then fill up the barrel with rain water. Lay on the top heavy weights. Let it stand in the sun or some warm place till you get the shade required. A. H. C.
Another way to color yarn, cloth or carpet rags is to boil a large iron kettle full of butternut bark four hours; take out the bark, put in a spoonful of copperas. If you wish a black put in more copperas or a little blue vitriol (too much vitriol rots the goods). Then while the dye is boiling, put in the goods and keep stirring and once every few minutes lift the goods with a stick into the air, then put them under. And keep watching and moving them until you obtain the desired shade. Do not fold or pack them too tight, or they will spot. Sarah A. Bixby.
For three pounds of silk take five and one-quarter pounds of archil. Mix well with the liquor, letting it boil fifteen minutes. When you dip the silk do so quickly, then let it cool and wash it in soft water, and a very pretty violet will be the result. J. F. G.
One ounce of cream of tartar, one ounce of cochineal well powdered, five ounces of muriate of tin. This will do two pounds of goods. Boil the dye and put in the goods. Work briskly for fifteen minutes, then boil one and one-half hours, moving the goods about while boiling. Wash in cold water and dry in a shady place. M. H.