2. Stock For White Soups

This is a soup, the foundation of which is veal, the knuckle, the scrag, or calf's head being the best meat for the purpose, an old fowl, a little ham, or bacon, mutton, sheep's head, etc., nearly the same ingredients as for brown soups, save that there must not be much beef, and the proportion of ham and bacon smaller in the latter than former, and when made for white sauce, care must be taken to leave out the pepper.

3. White Soup

General directions for white stock have been given above, but to prevent mistake, take a knuckle of veal, separated into three or four pieces, a slice of ham as lean as possible, a few onions, thyme, cloves, and mace, stew twelve or fourteen hours until the stock is as rich as the ingredients can make it; an old fowl will make it much richer if added. This soup must be made the day before it is required, when removed from the fire, after being sufficiently stewed, let it cool; and then remove the fat; add to it four ounces of pounded blanched almonds, let it boil slowly, thicken it with half a pint of cream and an egg; it should boil slowly for half an hour, and then be served.

4. Beef Gravy

Take three pounds of beef steaks, two rabbits, excepting the head and breast, a knuckle of veal, five carrots, six onions, two cloves, two bay leaves, a bunch of parsley, and scallions; put all these into a stew-pan with two ladlefuls of broth, and set them over a good fire to reduce them, cover the stove, and let the stewpan stand over it until the meat begins to give out the gravy, and adheres slightly; the jelly at the bottom of the stewpan ought to be nearly black, and when that is the case, take it from the stove, and let it stand for ten minutes, then fill up the stewpan with good broth or water, if the latter not so large a quantity, let this simmer for three hours, skim and season it well; if water is used instead of broth, the gravy must be strained before it is used.

5. Beef Gravy

Cut a piece of the cheek or neck into pieces, strew some flour over it, mix it well with the meat, and put it into the saucepan with as much water as will cover it, an onion, a little allspice, a little pepper, and some salt, cover it close, and when it boils skim it, then throw in a small crust of bread, or raspings, and stew it till the gravy is rich and good, strain it off, and pour it into a sauce boat.

6. Gravy - Clear

Slice some beef thinly, broil a part of it over a very clear quick fire just enough to give colour to the gravy, but not to dress it; put that with the raw into a tinned stewpan with a couple of onions, one or two cloves, whole black pepper, berries of allspice, and a bunch of sweet herbs, cover it with hot water, give it one boil, and Skim it two or three times, then cover it, and let it simmer till quite strong.

7. Gravy Soup

Nothing is better than shin of beef for this soup, though pieces of the rump and other parts are used; the shin should be sawed in several places, and the marrow extracted; this, if laid in the bottom of the saucepan will take the place of butter; if marrow is not forthcoming butter must be employed; take a fourth of the quantity of ham, stew gently until the gravy is extracted, care being taken it does not burn; a little water may be employed by the inexperienced, but not much; when it has nearly dried up again put in herbs, a couple of carrots cut very small, pepper ground, salt, a little white sugar, this can be omitted, but it materially adds to the flavour; add boiling water in requisite quantity, stew gently for five hours; when cold remove the fat, and warm up as wanted.